The role of personalities: Reagan, Thatcher and Pope John Paul II

Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

A-Levels Cold War (End of Cold War) Mind Map on The role of personalities: Reagan, Thatcher and Pope John Paul II, created by jacksearle on 05/26/2014.

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Created by jacksearle over 5 years ago
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The role of personalities: Reagan, Thatcher and Pope John Paul II
1 Reagan and the Triumphalists
1.1 Triumphalist argument maintains that R's hard-line approach to the USSR in early 80s imposed enormous economic and military pressure on the Soviets
1.1.1 As a result - USSR could no longer compete with US defence spending - thus abandoned the arms race and the Cold War
1.2 According to this interpretation, R's successful anti-comm policies included
1.2.1 53% increase in the US defence budget - Oct 1981
1.2.2 Announcement of SDI - March 1983
1.2.3 Uncompromising anti-Soviet rhetoric
1.2.4 Implementation of the Reagan doctrine Including US military and financial measures to combat comm in Nicaragua, El Salvador, Grenada and Afghan
1.2.5 deployment of Cruise and Pershing II missiles in Europe
1.3 Criticism of the Triumphalist interpretation
1.3.1 oversimplifies a complex historical process and exaggerates the impact of R's hardline approach
1.3.2 1982-1984 R's stance failed to extract concessions from Soviet leader Andropov- USA's confrontational approach merely prolonged Cold War by hardening Soviet approach
1.3.3 R's offer to share SDI tech with USSR contradicts the argument that the USA aimed to undermine USSR economically
1.3.4 Soviet scientists concluded that SDI was impractical - so it imposed limited pressure on USSR
1.3.5 Reagan and Bush's policy of engagement with G after 1985 produced much more significant results e.g INF treaty 1987 and 1991 START treaty
1.3.6 Underestimates G's new thinking, long-standing internal Soviet problems and growing discontent in Eastern Europe
2 Margaret Thatcher
2.1 Many triumphalists assert that Thatcher played an important, if secondary role, in bringing Cold War to an end
2.1.1 Thatcher supported R's anti-Soviet strategy of 'militarised counter-revolution' She later claimed that this US policy was the reason the West won
2.2 Thatcher's support of Reagan's policies
2.2.1 T reinforced R's anti-comm rhetoric e.g Oct 1982 she said that the Soviets' "pitiless ideology only survives because it is maintained by force" From Nov 1983 - T permitted USA to deploy cruise missiles in UK - a key feature of R's plan to put pressure on USSR T also acted as R's unofficial envoy by promoting US policy to other Western European govts
2.2.2 T also pursued some less confrontational policies - which contradicted her 'Cold War warrior' image e.g 1984 - invited G to London for talks before he came to power Established good working relationship with G - "this is a man I can do business with" Then urged R to start dialogue with G Thatcher later endorsed perestroika and acted as an effective diplomatic link between G and Presidents Reagan and Bush
3 Pope John Paul II
3.1 The Polish Pope - made a significant contribution to ending the Cold War
3.1.1 By inspiring Catholics in Eastern Europe and providing moral support for Polish trade union Solidarity Visits to Poland in 1979, 1983 and 1987 were very popular 12 million Poles saw pope on 1979 tour Visits clearly indicated that Catholicism - rather than Communism - had public loyalty Pope rejected the Polish regime's claim that the Catholic Church had no social role Jan 1981 - Walesa - Solidarity leader and devout Catholic - was blessed by the Pope in Rome Clear indicator of Pope throwing his weight behind solidarity Pope's speeches - e.g 'Do not be afraid' 1979 - encouraged anti-communists and made the Polish people more self-confident
3.2 Despite his apparent importance - The Pope's influence had limits
3.2.1 Catholicism had huge support in Poland and Baltic States - but in Eastern Europe it had less impact Had to compete with Protestantism - Orthodox Church - Secularism

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