Thermopylae & Artemisium 480BC

gayds
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

A Levels Greece and Persia 499 - 449BC Mind Map on Thermopylae & Artemisium 480BC, created by gayds on 05/27/2014.

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gayds
Created by gayds over 5 years ago
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Thermopylae & Artemisium 480BC
1 The two positions were totally interdependent, since defeat of either force would necessitate the withdrawal of the other. Buckley, p. 171
2 Inevitable?
2.1 Persian resources unimpaired – not a defeat
2.2 Death of Dareios 486 BC
2.3 Revolt in Egypt 485 BC
2.4 481 BC Massive preparations under way
2.5 Canal dug – connection between Mount Athos Peninsular to Chalkidike
2.6 Double bridge of boats across Hellespont
2.7 All preparations open to Greek world
3 why was 480 different?
3.1 Led by Xerxes himself
3.2 Why would he decide to do this?
3.3 Delphic oracle told the Athenians to ‘fly to the world’s end’ (Hdt.7.140)
3.4 Athenians ask for a second message
3.5 Attack by land and sea
3.6 Xerxes doesn’t demand submission
4 Results
4.1 Persian losses supposedly greater than Greek
4.1.1 4000 Greeks (lots of helots)
4.1.2 20,000 Persians
4.2 Probably exaggerated
4.2.1 In three naval battles and two storms the Persian fleet suffered heavy losses
4.2.1.1 Perhaps half were taken out of action
4.3 The morale of the Greeks was not effected
4.4 Central Greece now open for invasion
4.5 General evacuation ordered in Athens
5 Importance
5.1 Loss of Thermopylae forced the submission of Boeotia
5.2 Blame on Sparta?
5.2.1 Excuse on sacred Olympic and Carnean festivals?
5.2.2 Many Peloponnesians did not approve of Themistocles’ policy
5.2.3 The decision of Sparta to delay the dispatch of their main forces was based on the confidence that an adequate number of troops had been sent to Thermopylae:
5.3 Themistocles’ plan to hold the fleet at Artemisium played a decisive role
5.3.1 The Persian fleet could not divide and make raids against the Peloponnese to make diversions – forced to pick one fight only
5.4 Therefore, they sent their advance guard, not thinking that the campaign at Thermopylae would be decided so soon. Herodotus 7.206.2 (quoted in Buckley, p. 172)

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