The History of English

Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

Mind Map on The History of English, created by eiholzercristin on 05/27/2014.

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Created by eiholzercristin over 5 years ago
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The History of English
1 How old is English?
1.1 documented for about 1'300 years
1.2 English was the language spoken by Germanic tribes who settled in England in the course of the 5th century
1.3 comparitive reconstruction = hypothisis that some languages are related
1.3.1 you compare related words systematically and you then reconstruct the earlier forms from which the recorded ones must have been descended (abstammen von)
1.4 The Indo-European Family of Languages
1.4.1 Indo European -> Germanic -> West-Germanic (German, English, Dutch) or North-Germanic -> (Danish, Norweign)
1.4.2 Indo European -> Italic -> Latin -> Romance -> Portuguese, Spanish, French, etc.
1.4.3 Indo European -> Celtic -> Insular (-> Goidelic -> Irish or Brittanic -> Welsh, Cornish) or Continental -> Gaulish
1.5 Relation of languages
1.5.1 genetically related languages -> related words (father, Vater) dialects became daughter languages in their own right own language if: they have a written standard, do the speakers feel that theirs is a language?
1.5.2 language contact -> borrowings (Latin: vinum, English: wine)
2 The British Isles before the Arrival of English
2.1 England and Wales were part of Roman Empire
2.1.1 inhabitants were Celts, spoke varieties of celtic and in the parts occupied by the Romans Latin Anglo-Saxons arrived, found Romanized Celts Celts were conquered (besiegt) and driven westward -> thats why Celtic languages are spoken in western parts of the British Isles (Welsh in Wales) The Celtic languages and Latin have left hardly any traces in English. Only in river names or topographical terms later loanwords: slogan, whiskey Insular Latin: place names ending in -chester (Manchester), -caster (from castrum) -> Anglo Saxons added the Latin suffix
3 External and Internal History
3.1 External History of a language: History of the people who speak it
3.1.1 Example Norman Conquest: French speaking Normans came and banished the Anglo-Saxons French was official language of England (150 years not written but spoken by almost everyone) elite spoke French, many texts in French -> large-scale borrowing (10'000 words from French)
3.2 Internal History of a language: developments which cannot be explained by historical events