Infection and response

Brodie McMeowface
Mind Map by Brodie McMeowface, updated more than 1 year ago
Brodie McMeowface
Created by Brodie McMeowface almost 3 years ago
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An overview of what you need to know for AQA Biology topic 3, infection and response. Please rate and comment so I know how to improve these resources for people to use in the future, thanks :-)

Resource summary

Infection and response
1 Microorganisms
1.1 Pathogens are harmful microorganisms
1.2 Bacteria
1.2.1 Reproduce very quickly
1.2.1.1 binary fission
1.2.2 Made of cytoplasm, cell wall and membrane, chromosomes and sometimes flagella
1.2.3 Toxins
1.3 Virus
1.3.1 Smallest "living" things
1.3.2 Can't reproduce without other cells
1.3.2.1 Kills cells in the process
1.3.3 Made of RNA, a protein coat and a membrane
1.4 Fungi
1.4.1 A lot like animal cells except with vacuoles and food storage granules
1.4.2 Grow together in a root like structure
1.4.2.1 rips other cells apart
1.4.3 Mitosis
1.5 Protists
1.5.1 Other single-celled organisms
1.5.2 Most have nuclei, ribosomes and cell membranes, but it varies wildly
1.5.3 Protozoa are pathogenic protists
1.5.4 Con reproduce in many ways
2 Stopping and preventing disease
2.1 diseases are transfered through:
2.1.1 direct contact
2.1.2 through the air on droplets
2.1.3 bodily fluids contact
2.2 Humans
2.2.1 Wash hands
2.2.2 Vaccines
2.2.3 education
2.3 Plants
2.3.1 Kill infected
2.3.2 Correct nutrition
2.4 Antibiotics
2.4.1 Antivirals
2.4.1.1 Difficult to find due to viruses residing in living cells
2.4.2 Can cause super bugs if abused
2.5 Monoclonal antibodies
2.5.1 Hybridomas
2.5.2 Made from rats or mice cells
2.5.3 May cause allergic reactions
2.5.4 Pregnancy tests
2.5.5 Finding cancer
2.5.6 Delivering drugs
3 diseases
3.1 Measles
3.1.1 Fever, dry cough, white or red spots
3.1.2 Coughing and sneezing
3.1.3 MMR vaccine
3.1.4 creams to ease inflammation
3.1.5 Virus
3.2 HIV and AIDS
3.2.1 Virus
3.2.2 Suppresses immune system
3.2.3 Sexually transmitted or by blood
3.2.4 Check partners for it
3.2.5 NO CURE
3.3 Malaria
3.3.1 Protist
3.3.2 Fever, sweats, headache
3.3.3 Blood to blood or mosquitos
3.3.4 Insecticides to prevent
3.3.5 Caught early, it may be cured
3.4 The common cold
3.4.1 Virus
3.4.2 Runny nose, sore throat
3.4.3 airborne, survives on surfaces
3.4.4 Washing hands constantly
3.4.5 Pain killers, no cure
3.5 The flu
3.5.1 Virus
3.5.2 Fever, nausea sneezing
3.5.3 Speads to 6 feet after sneezing
3.5.4 Avoid close contact with infected, use tissues, wash hands
3.5.5 Vaccinations, anti-virals
3.6 Salmonella
3.6.1 Bacterial
3.6.2 Headache, fluid loss, vomiting
3.6.3 Uncooked meat, cross contamination
3.6.4 Avoid raw milk and meat
3.6.5 Drink lots of fluid, antibiotics
3.7 Athletes foot
3.7.1 Fungal
3.7.2 red, itchy rash, dry and scaly skin
3.7.3 Direct skin to skin or indirect, e.g. towles
3.7.4 Wash feet daily and dry before socks
3.7.5 Anti-fungal, creams or spray
3.8 Gonnorhoea
3.8.1 Bacterial
3.8.2 Greenish discharge, pain
3.8.3 Sexual actions
3.8.4 Wear protection and check partners
3.8.5 Antibiotics
4 natural defences
4.1 Thornes to deter animals
4.2 some contain poison
4.3 White blood cells
4.3.1 Lymphocyte
4.3.1.1 Antibodies specific to antigens
4.3.2 Phagocyte
4.4 Skin
4.5 Mucus
4.6 Stomach
4.7 Bark
5 scientific testing
5.1 Growing microorganisms
5.1.1 Agar plate, sterilised equipment with flaming, loop the liquid bacteria, spread evenly, open lid slightly
5.1.2 chemicals that kill microorganisms will leave a circle of clear agar, bigger circle, better drug
5.1.3 incubated at 25 degrees for safety in schools
5.2 Placebo
5.3 Double blind test
5.4 1: drugs are tested in labs on grown cells
5.4.1 2: The drug is tested on animals
5.4.1.1 3: Clinical trials on people
6 Fleming and penicillin
7 Painkillers
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