C1.7.2 The Earth's atmosphere

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Mind Map by fampulli, updated more than 1 year ago
fampulli
Created by fampulli over 5 years ago
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GCSE Chemistry (C.1.7 Changes in the Earth and its atmosphere) Mind Map on C1.7.2 The Earth's atmosphere, created by fampulli on 05/28/2014.

Resource summary

C1.7.2 The Earth's atmosphere
1 For 200 million years, the proportions of gases have been the same as today
1.1 about four-fifths (80%) nitrogen
1.2 one-fifth (20%) oxygen
1.3 small proportions of
1.3.1 carbon dioxide
1.3.2 water vapour
1.3.3 other noble gases
2 first billion years of Earth's existence
2.1 intense volcanic activity
2.1.1 which released the gases that formed the early atmosphere
2.1.1.1 and water vapour that condensed to form the oceans
3 theories about the formation of the atmosphere
3.1 (we only need to know one)
3.1.1 during first billion of year period
3.1.1.1 atmos was mainly carbon dioxide with little/ no oxygen
3.1.1.1.1 like Mars or Venus today
3.1.1.1.2 maybe also water vapour an a lil methane and ammonia
3.1.1.1.2.1 plants and algae produced oxygen that is now in atmos. and use carbon dioxide in photosynthesis
3.1.1.1.2.1.1 most of carbon 'locked up' in sedimentary rocks as carbonates and fossil fuels
3.1.1.1.2.1.1.1 carbon dioxide also dissolves in oceans
3.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.1 limestone formed from shells and skeletons of marine organisms
3.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.1 the remains of these contain carbon and hydrocarbons: are fossil fuels
3.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.2 the oceans act as a reservoir for it, but increased amounts impact on marine environment
3.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.2.1 too acidic for coral and shellfish
4 nowadays, fossilfuels --> releases CO2 --> causes global warming
5 Air is a mixture of gases with diff boiling points
5.1 fractionally distilled top provide source of raw materials for use in industrial processes
5.1.1 1) air is filtered to remove dust
5.1.1.1 2) cooled to around -200 degrees, to a liquid
5.1.1.1.1 during which water vap condenses and is removed
5.1.1.1.2 3) C02 freezes, is removed
5.1.1.1.2.1 4) liquefied air enters fractioning column + slowly heated
5.1.1.1.2.1.1 5) remaing gases separated by fractional distillation
5.1.1.1.2.1.1.1 oxygen and argon come out together- so another column separates them
6 many theories as to how life developed
6.1 one: interaction between hydrocarbons, ammonia and lightning
6.1.1 supported by Milley-Urey experiment
6.1.1.1 sealed gases in apparatus, heated, applied electrical charge for a week
6.1.1.1.1 amino acids made, but not as many as there are on Earth
6.1.1.1.1.1 suggesting theory isn't quite there
6.1.2 1) lightning- chem recation between gases- amino acids
6.1.2.1 joined together in primordial swamp, a.as join together- organic matter- eventually simple living organisms
6.1.2.1.1 a body of water from which life eventually crawled
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