Language Over Time

ekimlauretta
Mind Map by , created about 5 years ago

Mindmap of four periods of English (MIDDLE, EARLY MODERN, MODERN & LATE MODERN) that are needed for the WJEC English Language LG4 exam

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ekimlauretta
Created by ekimlauretta about 5 years ago
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Language Over Time
1 Modern English
1.1 West African languages introduced through the slave trade (America)
1.2 The "Age of Reason/Enlightenment" had begun
1.2.1 leading to an impact on religious language
1.3 S. Johnson Dictionary - 1755
1.4 Industrial Revolution
1.4.1 fundamental changes were made
1.4.2 neologisms because of: science & tech, cities & factories, new inventions
1.4.2.1 fashion
1.4.2.2 food
1.4.2.3 leisure
1.4.2.4 medicine
1.4.2.5 chemistry
1.4.2.6 psychology
1.5 Prescriptivism
1.5.1 a strict set of rules that identify correct & incorrect use of language
1.6 Romanticism movement
1.6.1 Artistic, literary & intellectual movement
1.6.2 A reaction to the Industrial Revolution. Also a revolt against the social & political norms of the Age of Enlightenment and against the scientific rationalism of nature
1.6.3 Major impact on historiography, education and natural sciences
1.6.4 POLITICS: Associated with LIBERALISM & RADICALISM
1.6.5 Emphasis on emotions like APPREHENSION, HORROR & TERROR
1.6.6 Elevated folk art and ancient customs to a noble status
1.6.7 Gothic romance
1.6.7.1 Edgar Allan Poe (US)
1.6.7.2 Mary Shelley
1.6.7.3 Charlotte/Emily Bronte
1.7 Classic movement (Neoclassicism)
1.7.1 Decorative & visual arts, literature, theatre, music AND architecture
1.7.1.1 Drew inspiration from "classical" art of Ancient Greece and/or Rome
1.7.2 Competed with romanticism
1.8 GRAMMAR
1.8.1 non-finite clauses added to formality
1.8.2 Transitive constructions
1.8.3 "SO" was an intensifier(?)
1.8.4 Lots of semantic shifts
2 Early Modern English
2.1 RENAISSANCE
2.1.1 voyages of discovery (chocolate)
2.1.2 discoveries of science (pneumonia, vacuum)
2.1.3 new inventions (thermometer)
2.1.4 development in philosophy and politics (chaos, argument, probability, critic)
2.1.5 between 10,000 & 12,000 new words appeared (from alligator to yoghurt)
2.2 CAXTON'S PRINTING PRESS, 1476
2.2.1 Words were starting to become standardised because of national printing
2.3 LEXIS
2.3.1 Many words were "rejected" (e.g. illecebrous, unconsellable)
2.3.2 Word order is still varied
2.3.3 narrowing, broadening, amelioration and pejoration
2.4 GRAMMMAR
2.4.1 Only regular noun inflection -s
2.4.2 modal auxiliary 'shall' used for all people (instead of 'will')
2.4.3 Double superlatives/comparatives
2.4.4 thou/thee/thy use is discontinued
2.4.5 "its" was introduced as the possessive of "it"
2.4.6 Multiple negative
2.4.7 adverbs precede verbs
2.4.8 adjectives follow nouns
2.4.9 no past tense do construction (I walked not)
2.5 1611: KING JAMES I BIBLE
2.5.1 Monumental religious work
2.5.2 We still get a lot of phrases from the bible
2.5.2.1 The apple of my eye
2.5.2.2 a labour of love
2.5.2.3 by the skin of his teeth
2.6 TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS
2.6.1 Hangover -e from ME
2.6.2 i/y and i/j interchangeable
2.6.3 u/v used differently (u in the middle of words)
2.6.4 introduction of TH
2.6.5 Apostrophes used on plurals (e.g. jelly's)
2.6.6 PRONOUN DIFFERENCES
2.6.6.1 EME: YOU ME: THOU (subject), THEE (object)
2.6.6.1.1 THY - possessive determiner THINE - passive pronoun
2.6.6.1.1.1 Plural - YE, YOU, YOURS
2.6.6.1.2 In the late 16th and 17th century, "YOU" replaced "THOU" and "THEE"
2.6.7 Long 's' found in the middle of words
2.7 SHAKESPEARE
2.7.1 Introduced almost 3,000 new words
2.7.1.1 "lonely"
2.7.1.2 "majestic"
2.7.1.3 "bloody"
2.7.1.4 "assassination"
2.7.2 MORE/MOST used as intensifiers
2.7.3 PHRASES
2.7.3.1 "All that glitters isn't gold"
2.7.3.2 "Fair play"
2.7.3.3 "Green eyed monster"
2.7.3.4 "Wear one's heart on one's sleeve"
3 Late Modern English
3.1 more awareness and PC terms
3.2 English has become more of a global language
3.2.1 Black English
3.2.2 Americanisms
3.2.2.1 AMERICAN ENGLISH
3.2.2.1.1 Ethnic group influences
3.2.2.1.1.1 JEWS
3.2.2.1.1.1.1 kosher
3.2.2.1.1.1.2 spiel
3.2.2.1.1.1.3 "I should know already"
3.2.2.1.1.2 US BUSINESS
3.2.2.1.1.2.1 downtime
3.2.2.1.1.2.2 ball-park figure
3.2.2.1.1.2.3 my/your people
3.2.2.1.1.3 SHOWBIZ TALK
3.2.2.1.1.3.1 deadpan
3.2.2.1.1.3.2 slapstick
3.2.2.1.1.3.3 one-night stand
3.2.2.1.1.4 PSYCHIATRIST
3.2.2.1.1.4.1 psychobabble
3.2.2.1.1.4.2 shrink
3.2.2.1.1.4.3 stressed out
3.2.2.1.1.5 CRIMINAL
3.2.2.1.1.5.1 mugging
3.2.2.1.1.5.2 whack
3.2.2.1.1.5.3 junkie
3.2.3 Creoles/pidgins
3.2.4 Much more borrowings/loan words
3.2.4.1 sushi
3.2.4.2 sarong
3.2.4.3 burrito
3.3 Introduction of a TEEN CULTURE
3.3.1 Tendency to raise intonation at end of declarative AS IF IT IS AN INTERROGATIVE
3.3.1.1 Blamed on shows like "Neighbours"
3.3.2 Links such as "YOU KNOW" or "SORT OF" been replaced by "LIKE"
3.3.3 More prone to Americanisms
3.3.3.1 "BAD" to mean "GOOD, EXCELLENT"
3.3.4 A desire to "tone down" privileged origins
3.3.5 Black street culture, a strong influence? - WIGGER SPEAK?
3.3.5.1 Blinglish (A Jamaican patois)
3.3.5.2 Adults find black music and culture inaccessible and shocking
3.3.5.3 "BUFF", "MAMPI", "COTCH", "HENCH", "STANDARD"
3.3.6 Influence from celebrities
3.3.7 Cultures WITHIN Teen Culture
3.3.7.1 Goths
3.3.7.2 Homies
3.3.7.3 Punks
3.3.7.4 Skaters
3.3.7.5 Hippies
3.4 New Technologies
3.4.1 influx of new words because of new developments in technology
3.4.2 iPhone, iPad etc
3.4.3 Text Speak
3.4.3.1 Abbreviations
3.4.3.2 Clippings
3.4.3.3 Relaxed attitude to grammar
3.4.4 Internet & cyberspace
3.4.4.1 eMail
3.5 Television Programmes introduce more words
3.5.1 "GEEZER" used to mean a man but also someone who is admired for breaking the rulers
3.6 More dictionaries!
3.6.1 Oxford English Dictionary
3.6.2 Urbandictionary
3.7 Reasons for language changes?
3.7.1 Blurring of class structure
3.7.2 Education
3.7.3 Public broadcasting
3.7.4 Film & video
3.7.4.1 New accents
3.7.4.2 Less social stigma
3.7.5 American influence
3.7.6 Rise of urbanisation
3.7.7 Global communications (internet, telegraph)
4 Middle English
4.1 Language not standardised
4.2 hangover -e
4.3 fixed word order
4.4 prepositions instead of inflections
4.5 large influx of French words which limit effect on grammar (words narrow in meaning, for instance 'apple'
4.6 By 1325, everyone knows English. Some know Latin/French
4.7 1362: English is used for court business and other high powered-things
4.8 CHAUCER
4.8.1 Canterbury tales written at the end of 14th century
4.8.2 Writings influence by antiquity (Oid & Virgil) and Italian and French poetry (Dante)
4.9 a.k.a. Anglo-Norman
4.10 1382: Wycliffe's Bible

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