Renal System (Part of)


Mind Map on Renal System (Part of) , created by Addeana on 06/08/2014.
Mind Map by Addeana, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by Addeana almost 9 years ago

Resource summary

Renal System (Part of)
  1. Anatomy
    1. Kidney
      1. Function
        1. Regulating
          1. blood electrolyte composition by excreting excessive ions into urine
            1. blood pH be excreting/conserving H+ or bicarbonate ions
              1. Blood volume by conserving/eliminating water
                1. blood pressure via blood volume and by RAAS and ANP
                2. Mantaining
                  1. blood osmolarity by excreting excessive ions into urine
                  2. Excreting
                    1. Waste products e.g urea, ammonia
                    2. Producing
                      1. Hormones e.g. EPO , calcitriol = producing enzyme renin = production of angiotensin and aldosterone
                3. Physiology
                  1. Components
                    1. Nephron
                      1. Renal Corpscle
                        1. Glomerulus
                          1. glomerular capsule
                          2. Renal tubule
                        2. Hormones and its effect
                          1. Aldosterone
                            1. Promotes tubular reabsorption of Na+ = increased water reabsorption
                              1. Decreased urine output
                              2. Antidiuretic hormone
                                1. Increases water permeability in nephron = increased water reabsorption
                                  1. decreased urine output
                                  2. Atrial natriuretic peptide
                                    1. Inhibits tubular reabsorption of Na+ = decreased water reabsorption
                                      1. Increased urine output
                                    2. Urine formation
                                      1. Glomerular formation ; filtration/movement of water and small solutes from Glomerulus to the Glomerular Capsule due to blood pressure
                                        1. Tubular reabsorption ; process of selectively returning back useful substances from the filtrate back to the blood
                                          1. e..g. Glucose , amino acids , water , Na+ , Cl- , Ca2+ , H+ , HCO3-
                                          2. Tubular secretion = selective removal of additional wastes from blood to the filtrate
                                            1. e.g. H+ and K +
                                          3. Full cycle from blood to excretion
                                            1. Ageing
                                              1. Kidney shrink
                                                1. nephrons decrease in size and number
                                                2. Glomerular filtration rate decreases
                                                  1. inability to compensate for fluid overload
                                                  2. Tubule cells become less effeicient
                                                    1. inability to compensate for dehydration
                                                    2. Bladder capacity decreases
                                                      1. Urinary retention
                                                        1. commonly in elderly men due to prostate enlargement
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