Section 3- Plant nutrition and Transport

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Cambridge IGCSE Biology (Section 3- Plant Nutrition and Transport) Mind Map on Section 3- Plant nutrition and Transport, created by beccalaw7 on 06/09/2014.

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Created by beccalaw7 over 5 years ago
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Section 3- Plant nutrition and Transport
1 Photosynethesis
1.1 Word Equation= Carbon Dioxide + Water --> Glucose + Oxygen
1.1.1 Symbol Equation= 6CO2 + 6H20 --> C6H12O6 + 6O2
1.2 Photosynthesis is carried out in plants to make glucose (food)
1.3 Photosynthesis happens inside the chloroplasts which contain chlorophyll which absorb sunlight and use its energy to convert absorbed carbon dioxide and water into glucose
1.4 Leaves are designed for photosynthesis
1.4.1 Large surface area
1.4.2 Upper epidermis= transparent so light can pass through it to the palisade layer
1.4.3 Chloroplasts are found in the palisade layer which is near the top of the leaf
2 Rate of Photosynthesis
2.1 Not enough LIGHT slows down the rate of photosynthesis
2.1.1 Chlorophyll uses light energy to do photosynthesis
2.1.2 If light intensity is increased, so is the rate of photosynthesis
2.1.3 It only increases it to a certain point, after that it is not the limiting factor anymore
2.2 Too little CARBON DIOXIDE slows down the rate of photosynthesis
2.2.1 Co2= 0.04% of atmosphere
2.2.2 More CO2 increases the rate of photosynthesis up to a certain point Past this point, CO2 is not the limiting factor anymore
2.2.3 Plants need CO2 for photosynthesis
2.3 The TEMPERATURE has to be right
2.3.1 The temperature has to be right because the enzymes may be denatured
2.3.2 As the temperature increases, so does the rate of photosynthesis Until you reach 37C when the enzymes begin to denature and stop working...
3 Testing for starch
3.1 If a plant isn't carrying out photosynthesis then it isn't making starch (glucose is stored in plants as starch)
3.2 1. Kill the leaf by dunking it in boiling water
3.2.1 2. Put leaf in boiling tube of ethanol and heat in water bath. This gets rid of any chlorophyll that's inside the leaf. (the leaf will go white) 3. Rinse the leaf in cold water and add drops of iodine solution to test if starch is present. If starch is present the leaf will turn blue-black
3.3 You can see that CO2 is also needed with this experiment:
4 Minerals for plant growth
4.1 Plants need certain elements to produce important comppounds
4.1.1 They get these from mineral ions in the soil If there aren't enough of these in the soil they will suffer deficiency problems
4.2.1 Contain NITROGEN for making AMINO ACIDS and PROTEINS
4.2.2 needed for CELL GROWTH
4.2.3 If a plant lacks nitrates it will have yellow older leaves and will be small
4.3.1 Contain PHOSPHORUS for making DNA and CELL MEMBRANES
4.3.2 Needed for RESPIRATION and GROWTH
4.3.3 Plants lacking phosphates will have poor root growth and purple older leaves
4.4 3. potassium
4.4.1 To help the ENZYMES needed for PHOTOSYNTHESIS and RESPIRATION
4.4.2 Plants lacking potassium will have discoloured leaves and poor flower/fruit growth
5 Transport in plants
5.1 Xylem tubes transport water and mineral salts from the roots up to the leaves in the transpiration stream
5.2 Phloem tubes transport sugars like sucrose and amino acids from where they're made (in leaves) to other parts of the plant. This movement is known as translocation.
5.3 Root Hairs take in water. The cells are fount on the root branches in their millions and absorb water faster due to the increased surface area
6 Transpiration and Rate
6.1 Transpiration is caused by the evapouration and diffusion of water from a plants surface.
6.1.1 In leaves= common
6.1.2 This evapouration causes creates a slight shortage of water in the leaf so more water is drawn up the xylem vessels to replace it This means more water is drawn up from the soil through the roots so there's a constant transpiration stream of water through the plant
6.2 Transpiration is a negative affect from the way leaves are made for photosynthesis. This is because stomata allow gasses in and out of the leaves but also water when there's ,more inside the plant than in the air outside (diffusion)
6.3 Transpiration Rate
6.3.1 LIGHT INTENSITY Brighter= Faster T rate
6.3.2 TEMPERATURE Warmer= faster T rate
6.3.3 WIND SPEED Higher= greater T rate
6.3.4 HUMIDITY Drier air= faster T rate
6.3.5 Measuring Transpiration Rate Potometer