Population case studies

Jan Kowalski
Note by Jan Kowalski, updated more than 1 year ago
Jan Kowalski
Created by Jan Kowalski almost 2 years ago
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Population case studies
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Page 1

Niger case study (population growth)

Basic info: Country in West Africa Rapid increase in its population size due to natural growth Population of 17 million (birth rate close to 50 in 2014), 3% yearly growth

Reasons: Falling death rates (16.8 in 2000, 13.1 in 2013) People don't use birth control due to cultural reasons, uneducated (28.7% literate) Children work on farms to help parents who are mainly farmers (90% of workforce in agriculture)

Why are death rates falling: People eat more food and have a more varied diet Babies get vaccinated Sanitation and health improved, especially in capital (Niamey)

Page 2

Russia case study (population decline)

Basic info: Large country partly in Asia and Europe Population of 143 million, projected to fall to 140 million by 2020 Average lifespan of 65 years

Reasons for decline: Highly educated women who focus on careers (99% literacy) High immigration rates (to the west for job opportunities) High death rates

Reasons for death rates: Alcohol related deaths (cultural) Levels of HIV/AIDS very high Heart diseases common (diet)

Page 3

Bangladesh case study (overpopulation)

Basic info: Country in Southern Asia Population of 160 million Population density: 1250 ppl per square kilometre

Problems: Shortages of land for housing in Dhaka (capital) --> slums formed Lack of job opportunities --> people can't earn money, live in streets or slums (GDP per capita only $1500) Over-cultivation of land (especially floodplains of Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers) --> people live and farm there --> soil isn't as fertile, not effective and it's frequently flooded --> people injured, dead, infrastructure damaged (costs of repair)

Page 4

Australia case study (underpopulation)

Basic info: Country in Oceania Population of 25 million Population density: 2 ppl / square kilometre People live mainly along coasts (more inhabitable than desserts) 

Problems: Lack of people to join army to defend country (small population, enormous area - 8 man kilometre square) Shortages of workers --> not enough to mine resources (a lot in Australia - oil, gas, coal, iron) High taxes for people, high costs of living (PIT 19% to 45% depending on income) High import costs for the country as products not produced locally (not enough people)

Page 5

International migration

Background info: India (Southern Asia) to UAE, Dubai (Middle East) Dubai - 3 million people Only 170 000 Emiratis

People who migrate to Dubai: 640 000 Indians - construction 185 000 Pakistani - drivers (TAXI), construction 175 000 Philippines - retail, tourism

Positives for host: Dubai gains skilled workers such as doctors Potential market increased from 500 000 to 7 million - more customers to sell to, more businesses move here Emiratis can learn new skills from migrants Negatives: Cultural tensions - Emirati culture lost (only 170 000 of them compared to e.g. 640 000 Indians), e.g. inappropriate clothes (Europeans) Infrastructure can't keep up - sewage often dumped in the desert A lot of the wages paid to migrants is sent back home - doesn't stay in the economy Increase in crime, e.g. smuggling of alcohol which is illegal Inflation as increased demand for products

Positives for source: Money sent back home to India to help local economy Unemployment problem in India reduced Negatives: Less money is generated in India itself Shortage of men to work the land and produce food for the country Huge gaps in societies that affect development Some regions have smaller population which inhibits development 

Page 6

High dependancy (Italy)

Background information: 60 million people 201 people / km2 One of the highest dependancy ratios in the world

Causes: 8.9 birth rate, 10.1 death rate 23% are 65+ Improved standard of living People have less children (25% have no children, 25% have 1)

Effects: Schools closed Job loss in children sector More money needed for healthcare and elderly services Taxes raised (VAT from 22% will rise to 25% in 2020) Increased retirement age (67 years old)

Solutions: Encourage births (but only works in 20 years) 2 million immigrants needed (Ministry of Foreign Affairs) Raise retirement age to 77

Page 7

China's One Child policy (population policy)

Background information: chairman Mao encouraged population growth famine 1959-1962 killed 30 million people (food production not high enough)

Policy: one child/one successful pregnancy those who followed: up 10% wage increase those who didn't: up to 10% wage decrease forced abortions and sterilisations

Effects: birth rate decline (13 per 1000) prevented 300 million births which helped economic growth effective in urban areas now relaxed to 2 children

Negatives: by 2025 China will have more elderly than children (30% of Shanghai is over 60) --> high dependancy issues girls were dumped as deemed inferior to men (15 million babies) --> men can't find wives number of 20-24 year olds to half from 2010 to 2020 --> hurts economy

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