Early Modern British MonarchyWhat was expected of a Monarch To be a feudal overlord: "live off his own" "Warrior aristocracy" - degree of physical and mental strength; appear in battle Manage factions and cultivate social cohesion with the nobility Promote Christianity and support partnership with the Church Provide a male 'heir and a spare' to create dynastic stability through easy succession Encourage trade abroad to maintain prosperity Nature and authority of monarchy Monarch was 'primus inter pares' : first among equals As feudal overlord, owned most land and had greatest patronage Had to consult Parliament when passing laws In control of finances, also had to 'live off his own' Structure of society Feudal system, based on agricultural living and relationships between land owners and those who were given land in return for goods or services King is at the top: primus inter pares, divinely appointed as ruler Nobles and magnates and the middle gentry, e.g. knights and esquires, follow him in power Hugely disproportionate gap between the ratio of peasants to nobles, and the distribution of wealth between the two
USURPATION OF RICHARD III
The Yorkist Monarchy at the time of the death of Edward IVEdward IV's success as king, 1471 - 1483 Restored peace and stability after a disordered Lancastrian rule / Wars of the Roses After 1471 re-adeption, was able to control rival factions and cultivated a 'charmed circle' Provided both an heir (Edward) and a spare (Richard) Warrior king: fought for crown at battles of Barnet and Tewkesbury (1471) and killed Henry VI to eliminate his threat Successful military campaigns in France showed strength in foreign policy Roles of factions after Edward IV's death (9th April 1483) Rivalry between Woodvilles and Yorkists: Edward's marriage to Elizabeth Woodville had offended some Yorkists as it catapulted her family into a position of great power and authority from being insignificant nobles Woodville faction was large, thus a drain on royal patronage - important positions lavished upon their family, e.g. father appointed Treasurer and ennobled as Earl Rivers (executed during Henry VI's readeption in 1470) ; Anthony Woodville, Elizabeth's brother, given governorship of the Isle of Wight Minority of Edward V Edward was 12 years old when Edward IV died; in his minority he would require a regent - a Protector of the Realm Edward IV had written a will in 1475 which outlined a Regency Counsel of 8 bishops, nobles and Elizabeth The will was amended in his final days and changed the roles but it has since been lost; uncertainty of changes today Leaves confusion over the role of Protector: Richard, Duke of Gloucester or Elizabeth / Earl Rivers Heightened factional rivalry Historiography Carpenter: "For the new king to be underage was the greatest disaster that could have struck the [Yorkist] dynasty, for it opened the way to disunity, and that gave opportunities to alternative contenders" Carpenter: "Whoever had control of him then would be in a position to run the kingdom in their own interests"
Accession of Edward V and the usurpation of Richard IIIRichard III's stability, April - June 148330 April: Coup at Stony Stratford 'Convival evening' between Edward V (+ Earl Rivers + his retainers), Richard Duke of Gloucester (+ his retainers) and the Duke of Buckingham (+ his retainers) during which they discussed the potential of the future In the morning, Richard had Earl Rivers arrested: most supported his vying for regency; this gave way to collective relief. Elizabeth fled with her remaining children into sanctuary 4 May: Gloucester and Buckingham enter London Woodvilles had been unable to gather any significant support Gloucester and Buckingham bring Edward V to London By 8 May Gloucester is made Protector - support of Counsel gave him upper hand over the Woodvilles Ruled harmoniously for several weeks and rearranged Edward V's coronation and a convention of Parliament for late June (22 and 25 resp.) 13 June ('Bloody June'): Execution of Hastings Despite huge rewards lavished on Buckingham (e.g. great power in Welsh marshes, Chief Justice and Chamberlain in N. and S. Wales), seemed as if there was coming an 'amicable joint rule' of Richard and Hastings (Edward IV's chamberlain), 'the two great upholders of the governance of Edward IV' (Carpenter) Hastings disliked Richard's intolerance of the Woodvilles and distrusted Buckingham's great rewards, considering EdIV had judged he should be excluded from serious governmental roles Met privately with other loyal Edwardians including Thomas Rotherham and John Morton, Bishop of Ely, to speculate over Richard's ambitions Suspicious, Richard convenes Counsel meetings and accuses them - along with Lord Stanley - of plotting; Hastings given summary execution for treason Shows Gloucester's ruthlessness and suggests he holds designs for taking Kingship himself; early display of fissure in Yorkist household 16 June: Illegitimacy of Princes in the Tower Richard requested back out of sanctuary and taken to tower with pretext of preparations for Edward V's coronation Edward IV had previously contracted to marry Lady Eleanor Butler (née Talbot) before actually marrying Elizabeth - thus could be seen that all of his children, including Edward V and Richard, were illegitimate Richard has the friar Ralph Shaw preach his right to rule (ignoring Edward, Earl of Warwick, who would actually be in succession - he is in Tower) 26 June: Richard's accession to the throne Executed Earl Rivers and Sir Richard Grey (EdV's uncle and half-brother) to permanently remove any future threat from Woodvilles 22, 24, 25 June: Gloucester's claim to throne made publicly in London, second and third occasions by Buckingham himself 26: Formal assembly convened in Court of the King's Bench, packed court that asks Gloucester to take the throne; formally declares his accession Disappearance of the Princes in the Tower In months following accession of RIII, rumours grow that he murdered Edward and Richard Historical precedent of killing predecessor or a family member was established (Henry VI ⇒ Edward IV, George Duke of Clarence ⇒ Edward IV) Richard had strong motive - most contemporaries believed they were dead within a few weeks of his accession Played large role in building support for the rebels later (October, Buckingham rebellion) from southern and western counties (notherners remained loyal to Richard)
Why did Richard usurp? Richard, Duke of Gloucester feared the loss of his lands, power and influence in the north should the Woodvilles become ensconced around the throne - thus he panicked, setting off a dangerous chain reaction of events - Chaotic circumstances, power vacuum and political instability led him to make initial, rational decision to depose the Woodvilles; this spiralled out of control Gloucester was unduly influenced by Henry Stafford, Duke of Buckingham, who was hoping to have his own landed claims restored - RIII used to be very influenced by EdIV, now he's influenced by ruthless/power-thirsty 'Iago' figure of Buckingham Gloucester was a ruthless opportunist who reacted pragmatically to situations as they emerged - Opportunism would have spilled out before 1483, does not fit with his practical soldier character He had a deep seated ambition to become King of England and was merely waiting for his opportunity to strike - How could he have concealed this for so long? Had no idea EdIV was going to die prematurely; could have usurped during George's protests; could have seized power in 1470 He was loyal to the Yorkist dynasty and genuinely believed he was the legitimate heir to the throne - Not a strong enough argument as he would have made this clear during Clarence's protests
INSTABILITY IN THE REIGN OF RICHARD III
Early months - 26 June to 11 October, 1483Actions taken to establish his authority Arranged his coronation for 6 July Appointed chief officers of state: Bishop of Lincoln as Chancellor; William Catesby as Chancellor of the Exchequer Rewarded loyal servants: John Howard given Dukedom of Norfolk, Thomas Howard titled Earl of Surrey Empowered three greatest magnates, Buckingham, Norfolk and Northumberland, as lieutenants in Wales, East Anglia, and North respectively Deployed army from the North as additional forces during coronation, let them return home after Set out on a progress mid-July through Midlands to central countries, Warwick and Nottingham, to North Made foreign friendship with Queen Isabella of Castile envoy and Duke of Brittany; unable to secure arrangement with Louis XII of France Northern diaspora Transplanting of Northern magnates into South pushes the loyal Edwardian Yorkists to flee to Brittany to rally around Henry Tudor's growing lobby Had brought 'faithful' support but couldn't really ensure their loyalty as hearts and minds cannot be bought Lord Howard and William Catesby had remained loyal until Bosworth but not all could be similarly relied on Stanleys of Chester: bought into his regime but as Thomas Stanley had married Margaret Beaufort (Henry Tudor's mother), RIII questioned their loyalty and where they would 'throw their lot'
The Buckingham rebellion, October 1483Background Buckingham had been showered with control of Wales and succeeded Hastings - gained a taste for power; appetite for reward had perhaps become insatiable; was denied earldom of Hereford by RIII and could have been offended Richard's hold on power was very fragile - could not rely on closest ally or brother's powerful network of local support Opposition grew in S.E. during July and August and culminated in October Name of 'Buckingham's rebellion' misleading; rebellions had already begun before his defection, both in name of princes and Tudor Historiography - Crowland chronicler suggests it was conscience after death of two princes; More links defection to interaction with his prisoner John Morton which inflamed grudges against RIII; others see Buckingham's perception of himself to be a kingmaker, wanted to lead rebellion to place Henry Tudor on throne Events of the rebellion Series of household revolts by loyal Edwardian Yorkists - first had plotted to rescue princes during RIII's coronation progress (mid July) Intended to exploit Lancastrian support to rally for Henry Tudor once learning princes were dead: key link of John Morton, who put Buckingham in contact with Margaret Beaufort, who contacted Tudor 11 October: Richard III learns that Buckingham is backing Kent rebels, who are followed by those in Sussex and Surrey - Duke of Norfolk contains these rebels 18 October: South-west rebels gather in Exeter led by Thomas Grey; Buckingham invites Henry Tudor to invade 28 October: RIII had contained south east rebels, subdued Welsh uprising; puts down rebels in south west - Giles Daubeney escapes to Tudor's court 2 November: Buckingham is executed for treason 8 November: By now, most of rebels have fled from England - mostly to Brittany Outcomes of the rebellion Despite success in suppressing it, was disastrous for RIII: Henry now a credible rival, seen as replacement for EdIV's sons 25 December 1483: Henry announces intent to marry Elizabeth of York (Richard's niece) Clearly unable to reply on leading gentry, had to rebuild own power base - tried to hand more land to loyal gentry e.g. Viscount Lovell Planted loyal northerners in Midlands and south, e.g. Sirs Ratcliffe and Brackenbury - caused deep resentment 97 people were attainted and lost lands and heirs disinherited, mostly southern nobles; whereas 40 northerners benefited
END OF YORKIST MONARCHY
REIGN OF RICHARD III
Events leading to Bosworth and Henry Tudor's victoryRichard's instability Role of Parliament:- Reform of legal procedures: passed reformative legislation, commendable interest in justice for all - efforts to provide legal aid to the less well-off. Deserved positive recognition, however actually had little boost to his stability as all the contemporaries chose to remember was Hastings' summary execution- Acts of Attainder: attainted 97 gentry, mostly southerners, after the Buckingham rebellion - 40 northerners benefited in their place. Majorly disaffected the nobles, caused many to flee to Brittany; made unstable as built up foreign threat and challenge- Benevolences: had outlawed carrying out benevolences yet proceeded to incur forced loans (had to pay for Buckingham rebellion, war in Scotland, suppressing Henry Tudor) - weakened his stability as these were hugely unpopular; also a thinly veiled / hypocritical attempt to boost popularity by banning EdIV's benevolences- Titulus Regulus: proclaimed the princes' illegitimacy - most of population were illiterate, thus words mean less than popular rumour or hearsay; after their disappearance this also weakened his stability as gave him motive to have killed them Relationship with his nobles: the transplantation policy left southern nobles disaffected, thus inevitably stood inert at Bosworth - rewards lavished on Buckingham and RIII's use of minor nobles (e.g. Lord Dacre) alienated all other nobles, whilst rumours of the Princes in the Tower added to the distance; relationship thus was very weak, the two quite isolated. No charmed circle to speak of or rely on; had not been able to cultivate strong bonds before Bosworth and thus was highly unstable Council of the North: RIII gave control of this Counsel to nephew John de la Pole, Earl of Lincoln; overrode magnate Earl of Northumberland's interests and thus was unsurprising that he did not back him at Bosworth (Richard Holmes: Northumberland's rearguard showed "masterly reluctance to intervene") Finances: continued Yorkist supervision of royal purse and closely pursued payments from his tenants - finances drained however by suppression of Buckingham rebellion and Tudor threat; made RIII more unstable as could not 'live off his own' War with Scotland: ill judged attempt to appear a worthy king of England - despite James III wanting peace, chose to wage war to try and win the hearts and minds; expensive and failed campaign only drained his finances and pointlessly lost lives Richard III's capacity for kingship Military man: could fulfil 'warrior king' role (however, did not fight in attempted campaign at Scottish border) Deep religious convictions: supported Henry VI's foundations at King's College, Cambridge - also showed himself as a legitimate Renaissance king Pursued fair justice for all through his reforms of the legal system Called Parliament once (had only one opportunity), passed Titulus Regius, Acts of Attainder and also made king customs revenues for life Had produced an heir, Edward, d. 1484 (however, no 'spare' and wife Anne d. 1485 so left childless) Managed to avoid over-mighty subjects yet pushed them other way, resulting in passivity at Bosworth Could not maintain social cohesion - evidenced by Buckingham's rebellion Did not sustain peaceful relations between factions or respect nobilities; disaffection of southern nobles through failed patronage policy No attempt to encourage greater trade abroad Left no heirs and was usurped Usurping king - seized the throne by force
The threat from Henry Tudor Increased support for Henry Tudor Henry's public promise to marry Elizabeth of York won him support from the disaffected loyal Edwardians, many lobbied around his challenge Several loyal servants joined Brittany court in exile after Buckingham's rebellion, e.g. Daubeney and Willoughby Henry had network of spies who crossed border during 1484 and 1485 to build and assess his level of support in England - continued uprisings and noted strong support in Wales, e.g. Rhys ap Thomas, John Savage Margaret Beaufort was a key contact; marriage to powerful nobleman Lord Stanley gave her highly influential position, also family connections to Courtenays - satisfactory level of support overall French king, Charles VIII, gave him 1,800 mercenaries (led by Philibert de Chandée) and 60,000 livres in support against Richard (Duke of Brittany had negotiated with RIII to surrender Tudor in exchange for annual revenue but was foiled when John Morton, Bishop of Ely, sent warning to Henry, who fled to Charles VIII's court in France) Events leading to Battle of Bosworth, 22nd August 1485 1 Aug: Henry Tudor sets sail from France without any guarantees of support 7 Aug: lands at Mill Bay out of sight and knights 11 of his loyal followers 8 Aug: heads for Haverfordwest to try to hold a significant town but was conscious of lack of open declaration of support from any nobles (i.e. Stanleys, Rhys ap Thomas, John Savage) so strategically moves into Wales instead 10 Aug: reaches Cardigan where he is joined by friends of Rhys ap Thomas 12 Aug: Rhys ap Thomas declares for Tudor at Newtown in mid-Wales; given an extra 2,000 men to swell his army 15 Aug: reach and enter Shrewsbury after Sir William Stanley told bailiffs to yield at the gates; Sir Richard Corbet, his stepson, joins Tudor with retinue of 800 men 16 Aug: Talbot joins with 500 men at Talbot, but Tudor still lacks support from Stanleys, Northumberland or Norfolk - met William at Stafford but didn't secure support (Richard takes Lord Stanley's eldest heir, Lord Strange, hostage) 20 Aug: Tudor meets Lord and William Stanley at Atherstone, assumed they discussed tactics but neither openly committed to Tudor Richard's actions before Bosworth Stayed in Nottingham Castle as was central location - sent out commissions to muster troops in many shires Summoned Norfolk, Northumberland, Lovell, Brackenbury to join him at Leicester but believed Tudor would be crushed in Wales (by ap Thomas or Stanley) Declared Sir William Stanley and John Savage traitors after interrogating Lord Strange 19 Aug: moved army to Leicester, camped near Ambien Hill Battle of Bosworth, 22 August 1485 Richard's forces: 10,000 Englishmen - archers commanded by Norfolk, Richard with troops, Northumberland with the reserve Tudor's forces: max 5,000 men made up of different nationalities - vanguard commanded by Oxford and strengthened by Chandée's mercenaries, Talbot with right wing, Savage with left wing; William Stanley with 3,000 men at his left flank and Lord Stanley at his right flank Inconclusive battle until RIII's suicide charge; according to Michael Jones was chivalric action to show he was fighting for 'victory or death', also the restoration of family honour after Richard Duke of York d. 1460 in a cavalry charge At critical moment Sir William Stanley threw lot in with Tudor and threw himself into RIII's escort with his 3,000 men - simultaneously, de Chandée performed complex manoeuvre to protect Tudor not before seen in England Richard Holmes: Stanley's intervention was "decisive"
THE REIGN OF HENRY TUDOR, 1485 - 1509
The consolidation of Henry VII's position, 1485 - 1487Henry VII's actions to consolidate his authority as King Retrospectively changes date of the beginning of his reign to 21st August so that those loyal to Richard III at Bosworth on the 22nd could be attainted as treasonous by Parliament Rewards his loyal supporters: knights 11 men on battlefield and awards Order of the Garter to 17 of his supporters, including Sir William Stanley (also made his chamberlain), John de Vere, Earl of Oxford, and Jasper Tudor, Duke of Bedford (his uncle) Processed into London on 3 September for proclamation as king; presented his battle standards at the cathedral, which consciously copied Edward IV's conduct after Battle of Barnet, 1471 (the strong King prior to Richard) Appointed Thomas Rotherham as Chancellor of England then Treasurer: John Morton, Bishop of Ely replaced Chancellor role and Yorkist Lord Dynham took over as Treasurer at the Exchequer Followed tradition to the letter for his coronation and exercised both grandeur and prudence financially: took place on 30 October, almost identical to RIII's service Held first Parliament 7 November to confirm his kingship, reverse and enact attainders and to make financial arrangements: - granted King tunnage and poundage (the right to raise revenue from imports and exports) for life- passed Act of Resumption to reclaim all lands held by Henry VI- oath of loyalty to be sworn by royal household, Commons and Lords; oath to JPs- re-enacted 1397 act of Beaufort family legitimacy- nullification of Titulus Regius act of illegitimacy of princes Married Elizabeth of York 17 January 1486 after receiving papal dispensation from Pope Innocent: produced heir, Arthur (1487) and spare, Henry (1491) - symbol of union between House of York and House of Lancaster Created a lot of Tudor propaganda to perpetuate belief that he had a legitimate claim to throne:- designed the Tudor red and white rose to symbolise the reconciliation of the Houses of York and Lancaster- named son Arthur to exploit symbol of honourable kingship; named second son Henry to refer to Lancastrian lineage- emphasised his ancient Welsh ancestry and descendant from Welsh kings such as Cadwaladr- used Beaufort portcullis emblem to reinforce Tudor legitimacy as Margaret was descendant from EdIII- made Henry VI out as a martyr, turned his tomb into a place of pilgrimage and arranged for King's College stained glass window to honour him
Threats to the dynasty from pretenders and Yorkist claimantsStafford brothers and Lovell rebellion, Easter 1486 Pro-Richard insurrections broke out Easter 1486 but leaders were arrested swiftly:- Francis, Viscount Lovell fled to Low Countries (strong pro-Yorkist sentiment under leadership of Margaret of Burgundy)- Humphrey Stafford executed- Thomas Stafford offered clemency: a romantic image for Henry yet, with Humphrey's execution, showed he was still ruthless and decisive A minor threat but evidences lingering support for Richard and refusal to accept Henry's legitimacy as King Yorkists couldn't get anywhere without controlled rebellion focused on a figurehead for their cause Lambert Simnel and the Battle of Stoke, 1487 12-year-old boy tutored in Oxford under Richard Simons, pretended to be Edward, Earl of Warwick John de la Pole, Earl of Lincoln, joined Lovell in exile Had foreign support: Margaret of Burgundy gave him 2,000 German mercenaries (led by Martin Schwarz), was crowned in Ireland 24 May 1487 as Edward VI Henry very likely knew of imposture from earlier on; Counsel in Feb 1487 resolved a day trip around London to parade the real Earl of Warwick Sent Elizabeth Woodville to nunnery and took away her estates - indicates his huge level of paranoia at this time 16 June 1487: Battle of Stoke Upon discovering Lincoln's involvement and entering open rebellion, prepared for battle: rebel forces only 8,000 against king's host of 15,000 Outcome of the battle: Lincoln killed, Lovell presumed killed, Simnel taken prisoner by Bellingham; B+Rs given to notable rebels and minor ones hanged Yorkshire tax rebellion, 1489 Earl of Northumberland to collect a subsidy for Breton crisis support April 1489, met rebel leader John à Chambre - was killed in fighting Henry's response to threat swift and ruthless: sent large army led by Surrey to hang à Chambre (the second leader, Egremont, fled to Burgundy) Doesn't raise tax in Yorkshire again - has learnt not to rely on the far counties Perkin Warbeck's imposture, 1491 - 1497 1491: Identity confirmed in Ireland as Richard, Duke of York (younger brother of EdV) - coincided with Breton crisis and threats from Auld Alliance Didn't receive as strong acclaim as Simnel had in 1487 and could not resist the large army sent by HVII - flees to France in 1492 1492: Flees to Burgundy after Treaty of Étaples (Henry to withdraw from Brittany if French pays annual pension and its king, Charles VIII, doesn't support imposters)- Backed by Margaret of Burgundy, who trains him as a Yorkist prince 1493: Henry introduces desperate Embargo on Burgundy cloth trade, fully aware this might destabilise domestic security. Margaret withdraws support for Warbeck 1494: Warbeck backed by Holy Roman Emperor, Maximilian - luckily for Henry, Maximilian lacked resources to back him militarily- Charles VIII also withdraws support at this time as he wages war with Italy; another stroke of luck for Henry 1495: First attempted invasion of England, sailing from Netherlands and landing in Kent; suppressed easily as Sir Robert Clifford, an agent of HVII, had given him forewarning - Clifford implicated Sir William Stanley in the plot so he was arrested for treason and executed- Failed in England and was not received in Ireland, so set for Scotland: welcomed by James IV and given pension and royal wife, Lady Catherine Gordon (JIV's cousin) 1496: Second attempt at invasion also fails due to lack of support; Henry arranges Princess Margaret to marry James IV which causes Warbeck to flee Scotland 1497: Returns to Ireland but Kildare stays loyal to Henry. Lands in Cornwall to try and exploit Cornish tax rebellion but army crushed by Giles Daubeney- Fled to sanctuary before giving self up to HVII and confessing; met with remarkable leniency - was allowed to stay at court with Lady Catherine 1498: Sent to Tower of London after attempted escape and humiliated 1499: Executed with Earl of Warwick after trial for treason / plotting to escape; he was hanged and Warwick beheaded Cornwall tax rebellion, 1487 Followed attempts to raise tax for war against Scotland in response to James IV's support for Perkin Warbeck Unpopular tax to begin with - was collected aggressively in Cornwall, maladministration and corruption; protection of the poor through exemption rule was not even applied in Cornwall (where many were poor, and resented paying a tax for remote border raid) Leadership failure: 6,000 peasants led by Flamanck and Joseph, later also Lord Audley (who had financial grievances against HVII) - released Blackheath outside London before suppressed and leaders executed Could have reached capital due to widespread resentment against tax - degree of resentment amongst nobles shown by Lord Audley, even Daubeney put under B&R for passivity in suppression - or deliberate decision by Henry VII to keep armed strength close to capital and to assess his own weaknesses HVII learnt lesson of avoiding expensive wars - favoured negotiation: wars led to raising greater revenue which led to taxation; taxation led to rebellion which was even more expensive to suppress; wars interrupted trade, causing economic decline - all in all a threat to his security and prosperity
HENRY VII'S FOREIGN POLICY
Henry's main objectives in foreign policySecurity Wants to pass on dynasty to son, Arthur Dies in his bed Has international network of agents: paranoia Prosperity Avaricious Make England prosperous Fulfil expectations of a feudal monarch; overlord Securing vital foreign trade Recognition Dynastic recognition through heir and spare Overcome reputation as a usurper Construct marriage alliance to establish dynasty abroad Strategy: to avoid war at all costs (too expensive, would threaten his security and independence)Europe during the reign of Henry VIIFrance Ruled by Charles VIII, of the house of Valois Strongest power in Europe - monarch used that power to annexe other provinces (e.g. Brittany an, Navarre and Burgundy); brought France into conflict with many European countries Auld Alliance with Scotland - negative cohesion against England Spain Ferdinand of Aragon m. Isabella of Castile 1469 - held both kingdoms from 1479Holy Roman Empire Conglomerate of states in central Europe (Austria, Germany, their principalities) Ruled over by Maximilian Italy Centre of political power - made up of city states and papal states Focus being on Italy gave Henry time to stay in periphery and calculate his tactics Brittany Small independent Duchy - France want to absorb into their kingdom Duke Francis, the ruler of Britanny, aware of tensions; used Henry to gain English support against France France and Brittany: The Breton Crisis, 1487 - 1492Aims France: Charles VII wants to marry Anne of Brittany (both in minority) to absorb the semi-independent duchy Brittany: does not want to be absorbed by France England: HVII wants to avoid war but may disaffect population by doing nothing; needs to appear strong Holy Roman Empire: Maximilian, Holy Roman Emperor, opposes Charles as also wants to marry Anne Spain: Ferdinand of Spain also intervenes to prevent France absorbing Brittany May 1487: France sent troops into Brittany - poses question as to whether Britain should get involvedPro-involvement Owed France a debt of gratitude since 1485 aid in Battle of Bosworth Fearful of antagonising powerful France Not in financial position for war Con-involvement Potential increase in French power Would leave France in control of southern shore Owed Francis II debt of gratitude for his time in exile Events 1488: Duke Francis dies and Charles VIII claims Anne as his feudal ward 1489: Medina del Campo signed with Spain as Henry VII seeks international assistance- Trade clause: makes Spain preferential to English ships (Prosperity)- Mutual support to defend their countries; assurance that neither king would make treaty with France without other's agreement (Security) - Arranged marriage between Catherine of Aragon and Prince Arthur, m. 1501 (Recognition)- Marriage dowry (Prosperity)- Secures him with a strong ally in his weak early days (Spain trying to undermine France through Anglo-Spanish relations) 1489: Negotiates Treaty of Redon with Anne of Brittany, Ferdinand and Maximilian- Agreements to building an anti-French alliance- Brittany agreed to cover costs of 3,000-strong English army- Perkin Warbeck threat eliminated as Brittany promise not to recognise pretenders 1491: France takes control of Brittany as Charles VIII m. Anne of Brittany; Henry reasserts ancient claim to France and besieges Boulogne- Creating a facade: gesture of aggression with a lack of any long-term expectation of war- Charles busy focusing on the Italian Wars: has little to gain from warring with England- Appeases English nobility: plays well on domestic stage 1492: Treaty of Etaples negotiated between HVII and CVIII with following terms/effects- French to pay annual pension of 50,000 crowns (number agreed on in 1495) (Prosperity)- Charles VIII would not support any imposters (Security)- Henry would withdraw his English troops from Brittany- Slightly weakens Anglo-Spanish alliance ScotlandBackground English always struggled to invade: only a population of 400,000 yet conquests impossible and invasions difficult Scotland's Auld Alliance with the French always threatened to expose England on two flanks Threat of border raids - HVII keen to recoup Berwick, taken by Scots, as was financially draining to maintain garrisons at border Supported Yorkist rebels, e.g. Perkin Warbeck Leniency towards Scotland would be seen as weak domestically amongst subjects James III had been murdered by his nobles in 1488 due to disaffection and his pursuit of alliance with England; replaced by minor James IV who was dominated by Anti-English faction at court 1493 - 1509 1493: Earl of Angus, Anglophile regent, establishes control and signs a truce with England 1495: James IV comes of age - dedicated warrior who had particular enthusiasm for artillery 1495: Warbeck receives Scottish support, given pension and marriage to Lady Catherine Gordon arranged 1496: Warbeck's attempted invasion of England with JIV's support 1497: Henry's planned invasion - likely to have been a notable victory - derailed by Cornish tax rebellion; Warbeck leaves and peace is made between England and Scotland with Truce of Ayton 1501: Long-lasting strength symbolised with HVII's marriage agreement for Princess Margaret, b. 1489, to James IV 1502: Truce of Ayton matured into formal peace treaty 1503: James IV m. Princess Margaret and Anglo-Scottish relations were solidified The Italian Wars (1494 - 1509)Triangle of involvement France (under Charles VIII), Spain (under Ferdinand) and the Holy Roman Empire (under Maximilian) all gravitated around Italian states Charles VIII had invaded Milan, Florence, Rome 1494 successfully Spain and H.R.E. were intervening England was firmly uninvolved but could view from periphery any opportunities; HVII could bide time cautiously whilst eliminating domestic threats Spain and BurgundyAnti-French relationship England ⬄ Spain: Medina del Campo treaty of 1489 Spain ⬄ Burgundy: marriage connections through Joanna of Castile (daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella) m. Philip of Burgundy (Margaret's step-grandson) Burgundy ⬄ England: trade links through wool exports to Antwerp - A mutually reinforcing, symbiotic relationship based on mutual hatred of FranceTrade Embargo, 1493 - 1496 HVII angered by Dowager Margaret's support of Perkin Warbeck 1493: Woollen exports to Antwerp banned, which prevents major trade from going to Burgundy and moves it to Calais instead (England-owned) Shows Henry willing to sacrifice a degree of prosperity if it provides security 1496: Embargo ends with Intercursus Magnus ('Great Settlement') trade treaty which flushes Warbeck out and removes trade barriers Relations better but not easy as Philip continued to harbour Yorkists Significance of deaths 1502 - 1505 (1498: Death of Charles VIII of France; succeeded by Louis XII) 1502: Prince Arthur dies, leaving Catherine of Aragon widowed and the Anglo-Spanish alliance endangered: HVII proposes she marry Prince Henry (Henry VIII) but Ferdinand held out during improving Franco-Spanish relations; these were deteriorating in 1503 so he agreed - the marriage needed papal dispensation however 1503: Queen Elizabeth dies, leaving Henry a widower 1504: Isabella of Castile dies, leaving Anglo-Spanish alliance up in the air with the question of Castilian succession - HVII decides Ferdinand not as powerful as was when leader of united Spain; attempts to retract Henry's betrothal to Catherine; also chose to back Philip over Ferdinand in Castilian succession crisis 1505: Ferdinand signs Treaty of Blois with France's King Louis XII, m. his niece 1506 - securing strong Franco-Spanish relations (no longer needs England's support) Castilian succession crisis, 1504 Isabella of Castile d. 1504, leaving question of who inherits her Castilian lands:- Ferdinand of Aragon (her husband), or- Joanna of Castile and Philip of Burgundy (her daughter and son-in-law)? Henry has to pick a side to back:- doesn't want to alienate Philip, who in potentially inheriting Spain and the H.R.E. (son of Maximilian) would be hugely powerful figure- wants to protect English trade with Burgundy; wanted to gain custody of the pretender Edmund de la Pole from Maximilian- wanted to arrange marriage for Henry to Philip's daughter Eleanor Fate plays its part as Joanna and Philip shipwrecked and forced to seek shelter at his court: HVII capitalises on this luck to arrange secret Treaty of Windsor, 1506 Treaty of Windsor, 1506 Henry would recognise Joanna and Philip as the rulers of Castile Following d. 1504 of Queen Elizabeth, Henry would marry Margaret of Savoy, Philip's sister (Recognition) Trade agreement with more advantageous terms for England than Intercursus Magnus (1496), known as Intercursus Malus ('Evil Settlement') due to English favour (Prosperity) Philip would hand over the pretender Edmund de la Pole, Duke of Suffolk, with condition that HVII does not execute him (later, HVIII executes him) (Security) Alienates Ferdinand, however, so no surprise following d. 1506 of Philip he turns away from Henry to further strengthen Franco-Spanish relations Death of Philip of Burgundy, 1506 Death was sudden and a disaster for Henry: completely collapses the Treaty of Windsor and other European affairs- Joanna allegedly went mad- Ferdinand resumed control of Castile and was united King of Spain, married Louis XII's niece- Maximilian assumed regency of Burgundy for young grandson Charles (Joanna and Philip's eldest son)- Treaty of Windsor abandoned- Margaret of Savoy refuses to marry Henry- Henry left isolated in Europe; at least had Suffolk in his custody HVII still had good standing with Maximilian from mutual fear of France- abandoned Intercursus Malus and reverted to traditional English policy of safeguarding good relations with natural ally of Burgundy- strong foresight demonstrated in discussions of Princess Mary marrying Charles Relations uncertain through Burgundy-France-Spain's signing of Treaty of Cambrai, 1508: military alliance against Venice as part of Italian Wars but still left him vulnerable and without any strong allies in Europe 1508 - 1509