Poetry: a way of giving others insight into our hearts and minds Poetry appreciation/analysis: about interpreting language of poetry to uncover meanings of a poem/understanding ideas and feelings conveyed by the poet Purpose Different reasons (e.g. simply to paint a word picture, recreate a moment in time) Imagery: "see" a windswept sea, "hear" the tinkle of bellbirds in a forest Some poems primarily used to convey a feeling (e.g. anger, jealousy, excitement, sadness) Some poetry used to communicate a message (e.g. strong feelings against destruction/ugliness of war, view on degradation of our environment Not always easy to understand Poetry genre: requires writer to encompass vast meaning in few words (often achieved by using language that appeals to the senses) Poems may sometimes seem obscure at first reading; however, if you take the time to "unpack’"them, a density of meanings can be found Atmosphere, Mood and Tone First impression when reading a poem: may be of the particular atmosphere, mood or tone evoked Atmosphere: similar to setting of a novel; provides surrounding for the poem through word choice Atmosphere example: lonely/desolate atmosphere (poem about old, deserted house) - use adjectives (e.g. "abandoned", "mournful"), verbs (e.g. "groaned", "creaked") Mood: feeling the poet tries to build into the poem Mood example: sad/nostalgic emotion (poem about old, deserted house) - use imagery that compares the house to a lonely old man Tone: linked to poet’s message/theme; conveys poet’s attitude towards what is described; underlying emotions; may be neutral (especially descriptions) Tone example: angry tone (poem about old, deserted house) - message (the neglect should never have been allowed); tone detected by "listening" to poet's voice Our responses to a poem are very personal Imagery Visual/sound imagery: create atmosphere/mood and communicate message/feelings Visual imagery: includes use of similes, metaphors, personification Sound imagery: includes alliteration, onomatopoeia Imagery: allows poets to pack many ideas into very few words Similes Language devices where one thing is compared to another to strengthen impressions/ideas Always begin with the words "like" or "as"; however, not all expressions starting with ‘as’ are similes - one thing has to be compared to another Example: "The girl was as angry as a trapped bear." (The girl is being compared to a bear, therefore this is an example of a simile) Non-example: "The boy looked as if he would cry buckets of tears." (There is no comparison being made, therefore this is not an example of a simile) Metaphors Language devices where one thing is said to be another (not simply like another) to reinforce an idea Example: "The boy is a savage beast when he fights in the boxing ring." (The boy is being said to be a beast, therefore this is an example of a metaphor) Personification Special type of metaphor where something inanimate is given a human quality Often used to establish mood of a poem Alliteration Created by repetition of the same consonants at the beginning of words Often helps build rhythm/mood of a poem Example: repetition of ‘s’ sound in an expression (e.g. "she slithered silently") suggests a sinister mood by association with hissing of a snake Onomatopoeia Occurs when the selected word uses sounds like the action being described Examples: "miao", "woof", "bang", "hiss", "smack", "hoot", "rumble", "clang"