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SOCIAL STUDIES: Chapter 4

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This chapter is about the phases of the fur trade! Chapter 4!
Natalie Perdue
Note by Natalie Perdue, updated more than 1 year ago
Natalie Perdue
Created by Natalie Perdue over 2 years ago
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General Overview:  Economic Competition: Drove the fur trade throughout the country over several hundred years.  How initial trading was beneficial and not for the First Nations: Bad - Diseases, the pressure to convert to Christianity, forced to move west with the fur trade, dependence on European goods. Good - Partnerships, both acquired goods that they would use.  Missionaries: Positives - Set up hospitals, schools, churches, became peacemakers. Negatives - Good intentions but insensitive towards FN spirituality and value as people later tried to assimilate FN into society (make them act ‘white’)  .

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Phases of the Fur Trade:  Phase #1: This phase is mostly about fishing for cod off the east coast. After they fished for long enough, they would take the fish to flakes (drying centers) to sell to First Nations. Phase #2: Champlain established trade centered around Quebec, down St. Lawrence River to Montreal. The French-Haudenosaunee war was also going on at that time. The French had partnerships with Ouendat middlemen but the Haudenosaunee defeated the Ouendat. That means the Coureur de bois emerged as the business offer came up. As well as the beaver and game went down in population. Phase #3: In this phase, Britain came to New France and became the HBC, which caused economic competition with France. New France moved west with there Cree and Nakado middlemen. French and Scottish Metis culture emerged through First Nations and Europeans. Phase #4: In 1763, New France became a British colony. When they came to one colony, they mostly focused on lad rather than furs. NWC formed by British merchants compete against the HBC, but they still relied on h and Metis workers in the fur trade. The pemmican trade developed. The Red River Metis were interpreters, guides, traders, carters. The role of women in the fur trade were companions, interpreters, business partners, prepared hides, and made clothes/snowshoes. Phase #5: In this phase, the NWC and HBC merged to be called the HBC. This meant a monopoly again for HBC, but they started to lose control of the monopoly when the Metis were allowed to trade with Americans. The fur trade started to decline because buffalo and beaver were scarce, and Europeans demand for furs declined too. The food supply for the First Nations was going down, so they continued to move. Some fur trade forts became permanent, but others didn't make it.

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