Americans Move West

Emily Smerkiin
Note by Emily Smerkiin, updated more than 1 year ago
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Section 1: Miners, Ranchers, and Railroads Section 2: Wars for the West Section 3: Farming and Populism
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Resource summary

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The Great Plains An area in the center of the US just east of the Rockies

Great Plains Tribes Numbered over 75,000 Depended on horse and buffalo

Buffalo Provided meat, shelter, clothing, and food

Horses Brought by Spanish Provide hunting and transportation methods

Treaty of Fort Laramie First major treaty between US government and Plains Indians Accepted Indian claims to land but allowed settlers to build forts and roads Promised that US would pay for land damage

Reservations Areas of federal land set aside for Native Americans

Reasons for Plains Wars Colorado gold rush led to boom in population that fought for land with Indians Forced onto reservations that had many problems

Plains Wars Leaders Red Cloud and Crazy Horse Sioux chiefs William Tecumseh Sherman US forces

The Plains Wars Red Cloud battled in Wyoming Crazy Horse ambushed and killed 81 cavalry troops

Massacre at Wounded Knee 150 unarmed natives killed Last major event in Plains Wars Natives surrender

Treaty of Medicine Lodge Southern Plains Indians agreed to live on reservations

Buffalo Soldiers African American troops sent to force natives to leave

George Armstrong Custer Lieutenant Colonel that found gold in Dakotas Black Hills

Sitting Bull Lakota Sioux leader that protested giving land to US

Battle of the Little Bighorn Led by Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull defeated Custer

Long Walk 300 mile march across desert to reservation in New Mexico Many perished along the way

Navajo Arizona and New Mexico forced on Long Walk

Nez Perce Northeast Oregon Chief Joseph

Chief Joseph "I will fight no more forever"

Apache Southwest Geronimo

Geronimo Raider that avoided capture for a while but later surrendered

Ghost Dance Religious movement that predicted arrival of paradise for the natives

Sarah Winnemucca First woman that stood in front of Congress and asked for improvements in reservations

Dawes General Allotment Act Gave 160 acres for families and 80 acres for individuals Promised citizenship Reality was that natives lost 2/3 of land

Frontier Undeveloped area

Comstock Lode Western Nevada Silver and gold deposit

Bonanza Large deposit of precious metals such as silver and gold

Mining was the Most Dangerous Industry in the 1800s Dangerous equipment, tunnels, air, and tools

Boomtowns Communities that appeared when mines opened and disappeared when they closed Popped up suddenly all around the mines Many problems with law and order

Cattle Kingdom Great Plains from Texas to Canada where cattle was raised

Cattle Drive Herded cattle to market or northern plains for grazing

Chisholm Trail Early and popular route for cattle drivers from San Antonio, Texas to Abilene, Kansas

Pony Express System of horseback messengers

Transcontinental Railroad Railroad that connected the continent from east to west

Pacific Railways Act Gave railroads loans and grants to pay for construction Passed to encourage transcontinental railroad Railroads were granted 5 miles of land on either side of tracks (10 miles total) People had to pay railroad company to travel on railroad People did not have means of settling far from railroads so build towns near tracks People had to pay railroad company to live in railroad towns Railroad companies became richer because of this

Union Pacific Railroad Worked from east to west Employed Irish immigrants Began in Nebraska

Central Pacific Railroad Worked west to east Employed Chinese immigrants Began in California

Joining the Railroads Met in Promontory, Utah

Result of Railroads Brought people and goods to West Allowed goods to be shipped back east (cattle and beef) More efficient travel (four days compared to one month) Railroads became biggest industry in country Steel became second biggest industry in country (making railroad tracks) Allowed telegraph lines

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