Mock Revision - Geography 2013

SAMSTAR69
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-Restless Earth -Rivers -Tourism

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Page 1

Revision - Mock Exam 2013

Restless Earth

The crust is divided into lots of tectonic plates.

The plates are made up of two types of crust: Oceanic & Continental.

Continental Crust - Thicker and less dense.

Oceanic Crust - Thinner and more dense.

The plates move due to the the rock in the mantle underneath them moving. 

Plate Margins - Where plates meet.

Three types of plates margins: Destructive, Constructive & Conservative.  

Destructive - Where two plates collide sometimes forming fold mountains (When oceanic and continental)or volcanoes or oceanic trenches. 

Constructive - Where two plates move away from each other, magma rises, creating new crust. (Can be volcanoes)

Conservative - Where two plates move sideways past each other, crust ins't created or destroyed. 

Volcanoes :-Composite Volcanoes (Made of ash and lava, steep sides, thick slow lava and hardens quick.-Shield Volcanoes (Made of only lava, low flat sides, runny fast lava) - Dome Volcanoes (Similar to composite but only made of lava)

Earthquakes :Caused by tension.The plates jerk and send out shock waves (earthquake). Focus - Point where earthquake started. Epicentre - Point on the surface above the focus.   Richter scale (1-9) (Power of earthquake, energy) Mercalli scale (1-12) (Damage)

Case Study - Indian Ocean 2004Along the destructive plate margin, west coast of Indonesia. 9.1 on Richter scaleThe plate moving down into the mantle cracked causing lots of water displacement (Tsunami).230 000 dead or missing.1.7 million lost their homes.5-6 million needed emergency supplies. Economic damage & Environmental damage.

Short Term response: - Emergency supplies- Rescue teams

Long Term response: - Rebuild -Tsunami warning system-Disaster management plans.

Rivers

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Upper - (Steep)  V-Shaped valley, narrow sides and shallow channel.

Middle - (Medium) Gentle sloping valley, wider and deeper channel.

Lower - (Gentle) Very wide valley and channel. Almost flat and deep channel. 

Erosion changes the cross profile of a river. Vertical erosion - Deepens making it a V-Shaped valley (common in upper)Lateral erosion - Widens valley and channel (common in middle and lower)

Processes of Erosion:Hydraulic action - Force of water breaks rock particles away from channel. Abrasion - Eroded rocks rub along channel (Most common)Attrition - Eroded rocks smash into each other, breaking, rubbing channel. Solution - Water dissolves some types of rocks. 

Transportation of eroded material:Traction - Large particles pushed along the river bed. Saltation - Medium particles bounce along the river bed. Suspension - Small particles carried by water. Solution - Soluble particles dissolved. 

Deposition - Drops eroded material. (Occurs when river loses velocity) (Other factors include: Volume of water & Amount of material) 

River Landforms : Meanders - Formed by erosion and deposition. (Outside bend erosion and inside bend deposition)Ox-Bow lakes - Formed from meanders.(Erosion of meander bend and deposition cuts off the meander)Waterfalls - Formed when soft rock is eroded creating a step in the river.  Gorge - Formed when hard rock from a waterfall falls and erodes the plunge pool. Water the retreats leaving a gorge. Flood plains - Floor on edges of river, river flood deposition adds to floor and also creates Levees after repeated flooding as lots of deposition is left on the side of the river. 

River Discharge : Peak Discharge - Highest discharge.Lag Time - Delay between peak discharge and peak rainfall. Rising Limb - Increase in river discharge as rainwater flows in. Falling Limb - The decrease in river discharge. Factors Effecting: Rainfall, Temperature, Rock type, Land Use, Relief and Weather. 

Flooding :Physical factors - Prolong rain, heavy rain, snow and relief. Human factors - Deforestation and Construction. 

Soft Engineering - Preparation, warnings, prevention. Hard Engineering -  Channel straightening and Damns /Reservoirs 

Managing UK's WaterWater needs to be distributed to every area but most rainfall only occurs in a certain area. To manage this we build Dams and Aqueducts to provide water.

Case Study - Rutland WaterBuilt in 1970s12 km(2) area, filled from River Welland and the River Nene. Supplies water to East Midlands. Economic (boosts local economy),Social (educational), Environmental (Inhabitants) issues around the reservoir.  

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Tourism

Increase in the amount of tourists. (Package holidays, cheaper travel, more time and disposable income. 

UK Tourism:32 Million overseas visitors. £114 billion to UK economyMany factors affect the tourists; such as weather and cost.

Butler Model 

Mass Tourism - Organised tourism for a large number of tourists, normally on a package holiday. Economic (More jobs, but money goes to travel companies), Social (Improve facilities, traffic congestion) and Environmental (Protect environment with income, lots of pollution) impacts.

Extreme Tourism:Tourism in extreme environments, Antarctica.Attractions : Extreme activities, scenery and wildlife. Impacts: Environmental impacts, ecosystems destroyed.  

Ecotourism - Tourism that doesn't effect the environment. Self sustaining local attractions and small visitor numbers to keep environmental impacts low. Environmental benefits: Saves environment, renewable resources, sustainable resources. Economic benefits: Provides local jobs, local people can make money by selling goods.  

Case Study - Tataquara Lodge -On a small island in the Amazon rainforest, Para. -Owned by six local tribes. -15 rooms, lots of activities. -Surrounding rainforest Environmental: -Built from local materials-Uses renewable energy resources. -Food locally producedEconomic: -Income goes straight to local economy. -Tourists buy market goods from local people. 

Mock Revision