Class and Gender causes of crime essay

Nerhys
Note by Nerhys, updated more than 1 year ago
Nerhys
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Scottish Highers Advanced Higher Modern Studies (Context B: The causes and Effects of Crime in the UK) Note on Class and Gender causes of crime essay, created by Nerhys on 12/23/2013.

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Working class cause most crime -          usually associated with young unemployed males from less well of backgrounds. -          National Prison Survey. 41% of those in prison, unskilled or skilled manual labour -          Home Office report, 60% of robberies take place in 3 urban areas: Manchester,London,West Midlands -          Crime is higher in densely populated middle class areas -          More likely to commit violent crimes e.g robbery, murder, rape. -          They need money. Lack of norms or parent influence. -          Violent crimes= more likely to be detected by police   Poverty cause crime -          Lack of education, and employment. Unable to fulfil lives -          SPCR study in England+ Wales, newly convicted adults 18+, 63% were temporarily excluded from school -          43% permanently excluded from school -          Social Exclusion Unit, nearly 2 thirds youth offenders are unemployed at time of arrest -          People in poverty become socially excluded, cant afford to do things turn to drugs+ alcohol. -          Home office survey shows that almost seven out of ten people arrested test positive for illegal drugs.   Working class do not cause most crime -          Becker’s Labelling theory, social groups create deviance by making the rules whose infraction constitutes deviance. -          Those who make the rules; the upper class label lower classes as poor and criminals, due to caring norms and expectations -          Even if they are not they begin to see themselves as criminal -          Working class are seen as more likely to commit crime (young black male stereotype -          Judges from upper classes, more likely to perceiver working class as criminals, not focus on white crime -          People with money able to afford better defence   White Collar crime exists -          Marx, capitalism exploits the working class, law and courts run by upper class -          Main focus on working class crime, upper class crime less publicised -          White collar crime, cost UK economy 14 billion a year, significantly more than blue collar -          Middle class crime varies from working class. Middle class associated with fraud and financial crime, easier to disguise -          Laura Johnston, millionaire’s daughter, involved in orchestrating looting during London riots -          School teaching assistant, lifeguard also involved   Males commit more crime -          Women represent 5% of prison population -          Ministry of justice, men were responsible for 86% of ‘indictable offences’ in September 2012 -          Homicide statistics, 2011/12 89% males out of 2012 suspects were found guilty, 11% out of 25 females -          Sex role theory, women and males are raised differently, men expected to show masculinity through aggression. -          Women controlled expected to show compassion in accordance to traditional role as mother   Women do commit crime -          rise in violent crime offenders in women -          2000-2010, women’s population increased 27% -          High correlation between drug use and female crime -          2010, 24% women in prison were serving it for drug offences -          90% women in cordenviec because of drug related crime -          Men stereotyped to commit crime, less focus on women -          Justice system less likely to put women in prison, use alternative forms (children)

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