Henry VIII's Early years
Paragraph One: Personality and style of Kingship
Henry was admired by many, including Erasmus (Catholic/Augustinian theologian) and Thomas More as being a more ENERGETIC King than that of Henry VII
Henry was well educated and spoke Latin, French and Spanish, He liked mathematics and was part of the 'new learning' scheme
From a young age honours were reaped on the King, for example the Duke of York gave him the idea of Power and responsibility
Contrasting image to that of his late father, the upper class had become bored by strong but aged king who only focused on dynasty and a youthful king was welcomed by the nobility
Henry spent a great deal of his time indulging in his favourite sport- tilting (considered highly dangerous!)
Henry based his courts on that of Burgundy, I.E the perfect night who fought in battles WITH his army and had an extravagant and enviable court which shared women, music, wine and politics
LINK-- There is already clearly an underlying link between Henry's personality and the belief of him being an immature and idealist King, who put his own personal desires and aspirations above the practical ones of his council and for the benefit of England.
However, Henry was unwilling to help in domestic affairs as he was so focused on war, sport and women and left it to his chief ministers (Norfolk, Wolsey ect)
The issue of Security and Succession
It was VITAL Henry was to be married swiftly to ensure the important process of producing a male heir was for filled.
Henry had no living close male relatives (again shows how it is vital he produced a male heir to secure his Tudor dynasty) His younger sister Margret married James IV of Scotland- Ally?His younger sister Mary was used in the diplomatic world of Royal Marriage, idea of a female queen did NOT appeal in these times.
Solved! Within a few weeks within a few weeks of being King he was married to Arthur (his brother)'s widow, Catherine of Aragon. Gave him connections to Spain, keep the dowry AND she was older & perhaps Henry found that attractive?
Marriage was succesful and lasted nearly 20 years, HOWEVER, Henry never produced a male heir (his main goal) and only female, Mary, Although she was a useful ally to Henry (managed to defeat Scottish Campaign & helped keep peace with Spain)
Henry's Style of Government
Henry VII taken control of government e.g. signed all treasury accounts to ensure incomes and who owed him debts was maintained. Henry was uninterested in day to day running of Government. He was only interested in Foreign Policy
Henry used his Fathers Councillors to direct and manage domestic policy e.g. William Wareham
Henry permitted dry stamp (emphasizes lack of interest)
Meant Henry went into GREAT debts and fell out of favour with many councillers
LINK- This again highlights Henry's immaturity at showing no interest in the financial policies of England and blowing all his fathers carefully saved money on War
Relations with the Nobility
Henry worked hard to control the nobility but understood he needed their support for success of the Monarchy
The supposed Tyranny of his fathers later years and council of learned over use of band and recognisances.
Empson & Dudley were Henry VII's most HATED advisers that many of the nobles regarded as Tyrants & wanted to improve relations with nobles so had them executed in 'show trial' to be seen as a strong king
Henry abolished the council learned in 1510 which pursued bond and reconnaissances & set up commission of Oyer and Terminal to listen to grievances of nobles.This shows Henry's interest to regain relationship with the nobility.
LINK- Ruthless shows immaturity to abolish his fathers successful style of Governing?Shows Immaturity as he had more interest in impressing that of his council and people than the real benefit of England; 'show trial'
Government notes in BLUEFinancial notes in GREEN
Henry VII had worked hard to improve royal finances leaving a solvent crown on his death of £9000
Henry VII had spent far less on his court than that of Henry VIII (Linking to immaturity)
By the end of the first french war, all of Henry VII frugal savings had been spent
LINK- Suggests Henry was not as experienced as his Father, although far more popular and idolized (his goal) at court and pleased many (Earl of Surrey) for going to war
Henry VII was VERY cautious and defensive in terms of wars. He spent majority of his time making alliances (such as marriage between Spanish Catherine and son Arthur)
Henry VIII showed no sign of aggression for example his invasion of Brittany in 1492 in the end of the fighting season
Henry VIII however was young and ruthless, focused on pursuing his claim to the french crown and increase territory- seen as an excuse for war'
In 1511 Henry VIII joined the Popes league of Cambrai against France and invaded in 1512.Invasion was a DISASTER. Ferdinand used Henry Marquis of Dorset as a distraction while he invaded Navarre. Henry's navy was also defeated at Brett... First French war was a FALIURE
Second Invasion Henry led himself 30,000 men organised by WOLSEY- the Kings Almoner He captured French towns Tournai and Therouanne fell to English after Battle of Spurs.Meanwhile in England Catherine was succesful in defeating Scotts at the battle of Flodden
However, England's allies Ferdinand of Spain and HRE made separate Treaties with France.These wars had been terribly COSTLY and Tournai proved worthlessALTHOUGH, Henry gained Wolsey and had his first taste of Foreign Success with the Battle of Spurrs.
LINK- Extravagant money spent and lack of diplomatic strategy showed immaturity and naivety, putting his own desire of war and glory first.
IMPORTANT- I have included Links & mild evaluation... YOU NEED and 'theme' or 'link' throughout your essay in order to achieve TOP MARKS
Personality & Style Of Kingship
Security and succession
Style of government and FINANCIAL policies
Relations with nobility