CHAPTER 3 - VOLUMETRIC ANALYSIS volumetric analysis is the amount in mol of the substance being analsyed is determined by: measuring the volume of test solution that reacts completely with a volume of solution with known concentration; analysis using measurement of volume of a known to find an unknown e.g. titration concentration is a measure of the amount of solute dissolved in a specified volume of solution molarity (M) is one measure of concentration. It is the amount, in mol, of solute dissolved in one litre of solution. The concentration, c mol L-1, is given by c=n/V where n=number of mole and V=volume in litres a primary standard has a high level of purity enabling the number of moles to be determined from its mass a standard solution has a known concentration and is prepared by dissolving a known mass of a primary standard in an accurately known volume of solution in a titration, a measured volume of a standard solution is reacted with a measured volume of the solution whose concentration is to be determined the equivalence point of a reaction occurs when the reagents have been mixed in the mole ratio shown by the reaction equation an indicator may be used to identify the equivalence point of a reaction the stage at which an indicator changes colour is called the end point for accurate analysis the indicator end point must closely match the reaction equivalence point concordant titres vary within narrowly specified limits. Three concordant titres are usually obtained during a titration
HOW IS PRIMARY STANDARD PREPARED???1. Place a weighed sample in a volumetric flask2.Half fill with water. Shake until dissolved.3.Add water to the calibration line. Shake again.
KEY STEPS IN TITRATION CALCULATIONS1. Balanced equation2. N of the known3. N of unknown