Technology Case Studies

emmajackson95
Note by , created almost 6 years ago

Technology Note on Technology Case Studies, created by emmajackson95 on 05/03/2013.

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Created by emmajackson95 almost 6 years ago
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Page 1

LudditesPeople opposed to technological change

200,000 Amish Christians in the USA, who reject modern technology due to religious reasons - they wish to live seperately from non-Amish people

Cars, electricity and telephones are avoided

Power comes from wood, propane and coal

Some stick to values more closely than others, e.g. some have cars

Milking cows is a huge source of income

Population in the Lancaster area has tripled in almost 50 years

Haiti suffers from environmental determinism - we expect deaths from natural disasters.

Life expectancy is 52 years, compared to 82 years in Japan/ Average GNI in 2002 was $1,600.

Lack of technology to manage risks in a high risk society.

Malnutrition- 2/3 of Haitians are farmers and 54% ive on under $1 per day.- Infant mortality is high at 74 per 1,000 live births.- 45% are under nourished.Technology required: farming technologies to increase yields and incomes, transport technologies to aid with food distribution.

Natural Hazards- Flooding from hurricanes reguarly kills. e.g. Hurricane Jeanne which killed 3,000.- Storms cause landslides, destroying infrastructure.Technology required: flood control and slope-stabilisation engineering, storm shelters to provide refuge and warning and evacuation systems.

Disease- Around 6% of the population are HIV positive.- 300 per 100,000 people have TB.- Only 54% of Haitians have access to improved water supply.Technology required: medical technoloy, drugs and education and nationwide vaccination and immunisation programmes.

HIV - Human Immunodeficiency VirusAIDs - Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

Anti-retroviral drugs (ARVs)Can't cure or prevent the disease but can counter the effects of HIV by slowing the progress of the infection

HIV is spread by - - unprotected sex e.g. the Asian sex trade- infected needles/needle sharing e.g. Russia- infected blood transfusions- breastfeeding mothers with HIV can pass it to their babies

Prevalence - - Sub-Saharan Africa - 67% of population affected in 2007- South Africa - largest number of affected people in Africa at 5.5 million people- UK - infections doubled in western Europe between 1997 and 2002

Technological development - - 2008 UK HIV drug trials - drug blocking enzymes which help HIV to replicate- 2007 Oral vaccine technology - the Department of Trade and Industry gave £1.1m to Cobra Biomanufacturing PLC, who worked with researchers from Cambridge and Royal Holloway to develop an oral vaccine.- 2007 HIV-free breast-milk - flash heating milk to inactive the virus

Barriers to technology -- Patents- Costly equipment- Resistance- HIV clinics in developing nations are too far to travel to- Ethical/moral objects- Cost of treatment

Advanced technology to protect the nation against typhoon flooding - 4 miles of infrastructure.

200 tonnes of water can be shifted per second.

It took 18 years to build a system to cope with the rainfall.

Amish Christians

Haiti

HIV

Tokyo