World War One

Bibi
Note by , created almost 6 years ago

Note on World War One, created by Bibi on 05/07/2013.

Eye 828
Pin 2
Balloon left 0
Tags No tags specified
Bibi
Created by Bibi almost 6 years ago
Peace and Conflict Flashcards - Edexcel GCSE Religious Studies Unit 8
nicolalennon12
IGCSE Chemistry Revision
sachakoeppen
Atomic numbers and mass numbers quiz
Sarah Egan
Writing successful GCSE English essays
Sarah Holmes
AQA A-Level Sociology: Class Differences in Achievement - Pupils' Class Identities & the School
Rhiann Albon
Geography Quiz - Tectonics
oscartaylor
Geometry Formulas (Perimeters)
PatrickNoonan
Geography Restless Earth
sophieelizabeth
History- Home Front WW1
jessmitchell
Main Themes in Romeo and Juliet
Carlowl

Page 1

Between 1914 and 1918, Britain was involved in a conflict which was called at the time 'the Great War', but which you know as 'the First World War'.CausesHistorians disagree about what 'caused' the First World War, but most trace it in some degree to the growing power of Germany. The 'balance of power' between the nations of Europe became unstable. This led them to form military alliances: The Triple Alliance ‒ Germany, Austria and Italy The Triple Entente ‒ France, Britain and Russia An easy to remember list of the most important issues surrounding the causes of the war is: Militarism - many countries believed it was important to build large armies and navies. Alliances - the Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente were said to have been formed to help prevent war. Imperialism - European nations were creating empires and coming into conflict. Nationalism - all countries were looking out for their own interests. After the murder of Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand in June 1914, Austria declared war on Serbia. The countries of Europe found that the alliances they had formed dragged them into war.CourseIn August 1914, Germany invaded France through Belgium, using its plan for war ‒ the Schlieffen Plan. The German attack was forced back at the Battle of the Marne in September 1914. Both sides dug defensive trenches and the war ground to a halt.For the next four years, the war on the Western Front consisted of a deadly stalemate. The battles of Verdun and the Somme in 1916, and Passchendaele in 1917 were key events, where each side tried to wear the other side down.ConclusionIn 1917, the Americans entered the war. Before they could arrive, the Germans made another attack, in March 1918. It was successful to start with but the Germans failed to break through. They were pushed back in August 1918. Two months later the Germans signed the Armistice [armistice: An agreement by both sides in a war to stop fighting.] .Films like All Quiet on the Western Front (made in 1930 and then remade in 1979), based on the novel by Erich Maria Remarque, have led us all to imagine that we know what the First World War was like. We often think of flooded trenches, artillery bombardments, suicidal rushes across No Man's Land [no man's land: The area of land between two opposing armies.] , poison gas, mud andgangrene [gangrene : The death of tissue in part of the body.] . There were other theatres of war, eg eastern Europe, Gallipoli, the Middle East, Africa and at sea.The First World War was one of history's epic conflicts, and you may wish to compare it to other major wars such as the Second World War.CausesA number of different things contributed to a situation where the First World War could break out.The Threat of GermanyGermany became a united 'empire' in 1871, by defeating and humiliating France. After 1900 Germany built up its navy – this frightened the British. In 1901, Kaiser Wilhelm II demanded an overseas empire for Germany – this frightened Britain and France. Germany wanted to build a railway through the Balkans to Baghdad – this alarmed the Russians, who said they were the protectors of the Balkans. Germany's military defence plan – the Schlieffen Plan – involved attacking France.

The BalkansThe Turkish Empire in the Balkans collapsed: Nationalist interests became clear when the new aggressive nation of Serbia clashed with Austria. Austria and Russia clashed because they both wanted more power in the Balkans. The System of alliancesTwo opposing groups had grown up by 1914, believing that a 'balance of power' would prevent war: The Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy (1882). The Triple Entente of France, Russia and Great Britain (1907). The Coming of War, 1914 28 JuneThe Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand was shot by Serb terrorists on a visit to inspect Austrian troops in Bosnia.5 JulyGermany promised total support for Austria28 JulyAustria declared war on Serbia – this angered Russia.30 JulyRussia mobilised her army – this alarmed Germany.3 AugustGermany implemented the Schlieffen Plan and invaded France through Belgium.4 AugustBritain declared war on Germany.The Course of the War, 1914−1918

The War had five phases: The War of Movement (August‒September 1914) The Germans invaded France, but were stopped at the Battle of the Marne (September 1914). The British Expeditionary Force (BEF) helped to stop the Germans at the Battle of Mons (23 August 1914) The Russians invaded Germany but were destroyed at the Battle of Tannenberg (August 1914) The Race to the Sea (September‒November 1914) On the Western Front, both sides dug a 400-mile line of trenches from Switzerland to the English Channel. Stalemate (1915) There was a stalemate (neither side could defeat the other). On the Western Front, attacks on the German trenches led to huge casualties. Britain's attempt to open up a 'Second Front' at Gallipoli in Turkey was a failure. The War of Attrition (1916‒1918) The two sides simply tried to wear each other down: Huge battles, eg Verdun and the Somme in 1916, Passchendaele in 1917, lasted many months. Millions of men died or were wounded. New weapons, eg poison gas, tanks and aeroplanes, failed to make much effect. Terrible conditions in the trenches. Casualties from machine gun and artillery fire. The British blockaded German ports to try to starve the Germans into surrender. In October 1918 there was a revolution in Germany.

The End of the War America entered the war in 1917. In March 1918 the Germans launched Operation Michael – a huge last-ditch attack. On 8 August 1918, the German Army's 'Black Day', their attack was defeated. The Allies, with the Americans, began to push back the Germans. The Allies and Germany signed a ceasefire, or 'armistice [armistice: An agreement by both sides in a war to stop fighting.] ', at 11am on 11 November 1918. Consequences In some ways, humankind has never recovered from the horrors of the First World War: Death and destruction: Eight million soldiers died and many more were damaged physically or mentally. Nine million civilians died. Twelve million tons of shipping was sunk. On the Western Front, the war destroyed 300,000 houses, 6,000 factories, 1,000 miles of railway and 112 coal mines. People demanded a lasting peace, which would make it 'the war to end all wars' – this led to: The League of Nations. Remembrance Sunday, every November. The British Field Marshal Douglas Haig set up the Poppy Appeal (1921). Germany had not surrendered and was outraged by the terms of the Treaty [treaty: A formal agreement between two or more countries.]  of Versailles – this helped to cause: The Second World War. Some historians suggest that there were not two world wars, but only one, with a long ceasefire in between. The rise of Hitler to power. There was a revolution in Russia which brought a Communist government to power, led by Lenin. This event changed world politics completely. The War helped make Britain more democratic. There was an attitude that Britain needed to be 'a home fit for heroes'. All men and women over 21 were given the vote, and a Labour government was elected in 1924. Interpretations: The causes of the war The Treaty [treaty: A formal agreement between two or more countries.]  of Versailles which ended the war blamed Germany for the outbreak of war (Clause 231). During the 1920s, however, American historians such as Sydney Bradshaw Fay blamed forces such as nationalism and alliances. After the Second World War, historians such as the British historian AJP Taylor (1954) and the German historian Fritz Fischer (1961) blamed Germany – they said there was a 'will to war' in Germany. However, the debate goes on – recent historians have blamed Austria, Russia, and even Britain. What is your interpretation of the causes of the First World War? Who – or what – do you blame? Was war avoidable? Interpretations: The conduct of the war In the 1920s, Field Marshal Haig and his generals were praised. Many of the men writing these books were officers or officials - or their friends - who had fought the war. The Detractors In the 1930s criticisms of the war became popular. The anti-war poetry of Wilfred Owen and Siegfried Sassoon became widely accepted as representing the typical feelings of men in the trenches. The film All Quiet on the Western Front (1930, and remade in 1979) portrayed the war as a pointless waste of young men's lives. In the 1960s, Alan Clark (1961) described the British soldiers as 'lions led by donkeys', and soon the British generals were mocked as 'butchers and bunglers' in shows such as Oh What a Lovely War (1963). This is the view that most ordinary people still believe, as the TV comedy Blackadder Goes Forth (1989) shows. The Revisionists However, in 1963, the historian John Terraine set about correcting what he thought were the myths of the war. He argued that Haig was not an idiot, but a good commander who cared about his soldiers. Haig was faced with the problem that there did not exist at that time any weapon which could win the war without the loss of many lives. This is the view that most serious historians take of the war nowadays. What is your interpretation of the conduct of the First World War? Was Haig a butcher and bungler, or Britain's greatest general?

New Page

New Page

New Page

New Page