Movement and Health

Ellen Billingham
Note by Ellen Billingham, updated more than 1 year ago
Ellen Billingham
Created by Ellen Billingham about 8 years ago
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GCSE Biology (Movement and Health) Note on Movement and Health, created by Ellen Billingham on 05/12/2013.

Resource summary

Page 1

This is the human skeleton:

Bones Bones contain marrow, which helps the bone grow and acts as nutrition for it. They are made of 30% cells and 70% minerals which shows that they must be living because cells are only in living things. They are very strong, but are also sensitive because breaking a bone is very painful.

Joints Joints are the places in the skeleton between the different bones. If we didn't have joints, we wouldn't be able to move because all the bones would be stuck together

Muscles work in pairs to move bones. They can only pull.

Ligaments join bones together and they stabilise joints.

Tendons join muscles to bones.

Antagonistic Pairs are pairs of muscles that work in opposition. An example of an antagonistic pair is the biceps and triceps. When one contracts, the other relaxes.

Examples of Diseases caused by...

Bacteria: Tetanus Whooping Cough E Coli Typhoid

Viruses: Cold Flu Chicken Pox HIV

Fungi: Athletes Foot Ringworm Thrush

Protozoa: Malaria Dysentry

Eyelashes and eyebrows stop dirt going in eyes Windpipe wafts dirt out Skin stops anything going inside you Diaphragm - coughing stops bacteria going to your lungs Stomach acid dissolves things Gag reflex Scabs are protective coverings Nails stop dirt going inside you Sweat washes away dirt from pores Mucus and sneezing pushes everything out Tears wash dust and dirt from the eye Nasal hairs stop things going up your nose Eyelids wash eyes with tears

Things in your body that stop you getting diseases:

White Blood Cells There are 2 types of white blood cell, Lymphocytes and Phagocytes. Lymphocytes - Make antibodies to counteract pathogens Phagocytes - Engulf pathogens and digest them

Vaccinations: Vaccines are when a dead or weakened sample of a disease is put inside your body. Once you have had a vaccination, the white blood cells in your body make antibodies to kill the disease. Now that the antibodies for this disease have been made, they will stay in your body and if you ever catch that disease again, it will not affect you because the antibodies will get rid of it. This means you are immune to this disease. How vaccines were discovered: Edward Jenner, who was a doctor, though it was strange that the milkmaids caught Cowpox from the cows they were milking, but then never caught Smallpox, which was a deadly disease. He decided to put a small sample of Cowpox into a young boy, in order to find whether it would make him immune to Smallpox. The boy became very ill with Cowpox, but eventually recovered. Once the boy was better, Jenner gave him a sample of Smallpox, and the boy did not catch the disease. This was how vaccines were found.

Bones/Skeleton/Joints

Muscles

Diseases/Pathogens

Immunity/White blood cells

Vaccines

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