Biodiversity Hotspots

Caitlyn Grayston
Note by Caitlyn Grayston, updated more than 1 year ago More Less
Caitlyn Grayston
Created by Caitlyn Grayston over 2 years ago
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A-Level Geography (A Level Biodiversity Under Threat) Note on Biodiversity Hotspots, created by Caitlyn Grayston on 06/01/2017.

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A biodiversity hotspot is an area under threat from development that has high concentrations of biodiversity and endemism. There are 34 areas worldwide. They cover 1.4% of the lands surface yet contain 44% of all known plant species and 35% of all animal species. Advantages of managing hotspots: Protects range of places globally Sustains and keeps biospheres stable Education/conservation centered around specific areas Disadvantages of managing hotspots: Less protection for other places of biodiversity Area specific - multiple types of management for different biospheres May not be able to afford management

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Fynbos South Africa: Fynbos is the major vegetation type in south Africa known as the Cape Floral Kingdom. The Cape Floral Kingdom is both the smallest and richest with the highest known concentration of plant species, 1300 per 10,000 km squared Woody plants have small leathery leaves including Cape Reeds, protects ericas and members of 7 plant families found nowhere else in the world Fynbos plants are adapted to Mediterranean climates, particularly summer heat and drought Unusual geology and soils, topography and distinctive fire regimes Threats Include Spread of alien species Commercial forestry using non-native species e.g. european pine Bush fires Construction of housing estates Intensification of agriculture

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Atlantic Forest Brazil (Hotspot):The forest extends along the Atlantic Coast from Rio Grande do Norte in the north to Rio Grande do Sul in the south. It stretches inland to Paraguay and Argentina. It once covered a million km squared but today only 7% remains intact. The Atlantic Forest is made up of several different ecosystems including coastal, marine and forest habitats.Value of Atlantic Forest: Has more bird species than all of Europe - 55 of which are endemic 1300 vertebrates - 500 of them are endemic 20,000 plants - 6000 of which are endemic 92% of the amphibians found in the Atlantic Forest cannot be found anywhere else in the world Threats to the Atlantic Forest: Urbanisation - road building/house building Logging - particularly illegal logging Agricultural expansion Soy production Managemnt of threats: Serro do Mar State Park - largest protected area in Atlantic Forest. Covers 3150 km squared and contains 46% of all amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals in the region Conservation International Brazil - created over 200 protected areas, 170 initiatives to restore 50,000 hectares, pro plant nurseries program which invests resources in building technical and managerial capacities of local nurseries and in regulating businesses associated with the forest restoration. It works with businesses to finance and establish plant nurseries. Provides incentives to encourage forest conservation. By law farms in Paraguay must retain areas of the forest

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Hotspots Debate:Future may be ecoregions; Greater representation of global biodiversity Areas of exceptional biodiversity with high species richness or endemism or those with unusual ecological or evolutionary phenomena e.g. the Tundra Areas will be identified in all types of ecosystem

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