Managing Biodiversity

Caitlyn Grayston
Note by Caitlyn Grayston, updated more than 1 year ago


A-Level Geography (A Level Biodiversity Under Threat) Note on Managing Biodiversity, created by Caitlyn Grayston on 06/01/2017.

Resource summary

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Special Protection Areas (SPAs): Strictly protected sites classified for rare and vulnerable birds and for regularly occurring migratory birds. Designated to protect internationally rare breeding birds 5174 protected sites in EU. Increase fro 23% to 67% (47 million hectares) Helps to protect rare birds - reduced risk of extinction 1/3 of total land in EU is still undesignated International Tropical Tinder Organisation (ITTO): Sustainable management of tropical rainforests. Promotes conservation of tropical forests. Aims to promote expansion and diversification of international trade in tropical tinder in sustainably managed and legally harvested forests 36 consuming country members and 34 producing country members Local communities helping support forest management Hasn't stopped illegal logging

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Environmental Stewardship Schemes (ESS):Agri-environment scheme that aims to conserve biodiversity. Its main objectives are; conserve wildlife and biodiversity maintain and enhance landscape quality and character protect the historic environment and natural resources promote public access and understanding of the countryside conserve genetic resources provide flood management ESS provide funding to farmers and land owners in England who provide effective environmental management of their landEligible land gets £30 per hectare but less favoured land gets £8 or lessHelps to conserve biodiversityLess favoured land gets less moneyRAMSAR: Intergovernmental treaty that provides the framework for national action and international cooperation for the conservation and wise use of wetlands and their resources 872 RAMSAR sites worldwide Cost effective long term strategy Conservation alone is not enough, restoration is needed

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Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES): International agreement between governments. It aims to ensure that trade of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival. Trade in specimens of endangered species is only permitted in exceptional circumstances. Trade must be controlled to avoid utilisation incompatible with a species survival. A specimen of a CITES listed species can only be imported/exported/re-exported once the correct documents have been obtained e.g. license/permit 183 parties. 5600 animal species and 30,000 plant species are protected Protects many species. Legally binding Difficult to enforce. Small fines. Doesn't always deter poachers Debt Swap: An arrangement where when a foreign debt owned by an LEDC is transferred to a particular organisation typically in return for the country committing itself to specific conservation measures US & Brazil have signed an agreement converting £13.5 million of Brazilian debt into a fund to protect tropical ecosystems. Brazil will use the money to conserve its Atlantic Forest Transferring funds to local organisations eliminates political problems. Increased foreign control. Reduces outstanding debt Legitimises debt admitting it must be repaid/purchased

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