Global Energy Trade since 1981: Europe stayed fairly stable - energy insecure North America has increased energy imports - dwindling supplies Asian rise due to economic boom in energy imports - Asian tigers e.g. China and India Export growth in Middle East and former USSR in oil and gas
Energy Pathways:The geographical mismatch between energy demand and the availability of energy resources means that many countries rely on energy imports.The flows of energy from producer to consumer are the pathways.In physical terms the pathways take the form of gas and oil pipelines, the sea route of tankers carrying oil and gas and electricity power lines.Oil Pathways:In the case of oil, there is a complex pattern of pathways and players (exporters and importers). The Middle East exports around 15,000 barrels per day mainly to Japan, Europe and China. Substantial amounts flow from Africa, Europe, Canada and South and Central America to the USA. Russia supplies some oil to China but the bulk of its exports now head to Europe. Gas Pathways:Gas pathways are different in that they tend to be localised and regional rather than global. This is because gas is traditionally transported through pipelines whereas oil is mainly shipped. As pipelines become less dependable there may be a switch to gas tankers, transporting Liquid Natural Gas (LNG). One of the most significant gas pipelines is the trans-siberian pipeline.