Colonialism and Neocolonialism

Caitlyn Grayston
Note by Caitlyn Grayston, updated more than 1 year ago
Caitlyn Grayston
Created by Caitlyn Grayston about 4 years ago
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A-Level Geography (A Level Superpowers) Note on Colonialism and Neocolonialism, created by Caitlyn Grayston on 06/04/2017.

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Page 1

Direct colonial rule - maintenance of power through the occupation and ownership of overseas territories e.g. British Empire pre WW2How can colonial power be maintained? Military - occupation of territory Culture and media - cultural imperialism through art, religion and language Law - imposition of alien legal system and ownership rights Economic power - exporting to home country Government - by dictatorship, through colonial administrators Ethnic cleansing of difficult groups

Page 2

Justifying Direct Colonial Rule:Modernism:Modernists believed that the world could be improved by human intervention and achievement - that Europe could improve the world by colonising (1930s). Europe was the continent most naturally able to give the rest of the world a lead. Early modernists believed the British were naturally intelligent. Through their conquest and knowledge of foreign people, Europeans could portray themselves as modern, civilised, superior and progressive when compared with indigenous people.Mackinders Heartland:British geographer that believed that Asia/Europe was the pivotal control point for the world (1904) - core/periphery The rest of the world was peripheral and therefore needed colonisingSocial Darwinism/Evangelism:Spread of christian word though schools and churches - people in the colonies were inferior (racially and culturally) - they need to be civilised (a moral reason)Neocolonialism:Extention of the dependency theory, it allows the developed world to maintain control. Indirect control over developing countries through; Strategic Alliances Aid TNCs Terms of trade Global finance and debt Structural Adjustment Policies

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