General Pathoanatomy Final MCQs (301-400)- 3rd Year- PMU

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General Pathoanatomy Final MCQs (301-400)- 3rd Year- PMU

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Question 1

Question
Indicate the correct statement(s)
Answer
  • granulation tissue is rich of capillaries and cells
  • granulation tissue is rich in collagen fibres and fibroblasts and contains less blood vessels
  • granulation tissue is the immature connective tissue
  • fibrous tissue is immature connective tissue

Question 2

Question
What is hyper-granulation?
Answer
  • mature connective tissue
  • hypertrophic tumor-like cicatrix/scar
  • greater amount of granulation tissue
  • none of the above

Question 3

Question
What is a scar?
Answer
  • hypertrophic granulation tissue
  • mature connective tissue
  • hypertrophic tumor-like cicatrix
  • none of the above

Question 4

Question
What is a keloid?
Answer
  • hypertrophic tumor-like cicatrix
  • mature connective tissue
  • greater amount of granulation tissue
  • none of the above

Question 5

Question
Which stain can be used to prove of scarring (cicatrix) of the heart?
Answer
  • Van Gieson
  • Peris
  • Congo Red
  • PAS

Question 6

Question
Which of the could not be seen in rheumatoid nodules?
Answer
  • Fibrinoid necrosis
  • Epitheloid cells
  • Langhans cells
  • Lymphocytes

Question 7

Question
Indicate the correct statement(s) for the polyarteriitis nodosa.
Answer
  • it is an autoimmune disease
  • it affects mostly the elastic arteries
  • there is accumulation of glucosaminoglycans in the vessel walls which can be demonstrated with metachromasia with Toluidin Bleu
  • the branches of the pulmonary arteries are affected

Question 8

Question
Anaphylactic hypersensitivity reactions are related to:
Answer
  • Hemolytic anemia
  • Hashimoto thyroiditis
  • Allergic rhinitis
  • Bronchial asthma

Question 9

Question
Cytotoxic hypersensitivity reactions are related to:
Answer
  • hashimoto thyroiditis
  • hemolytic anemia
  • allergic rhinitis
  • nodosal poyarteriitis

Question 10

Question
Immune complexes mediated hypersensitivity reactions are related to:
Answer
  • polyartheriitis nodosa
  • rheumatoid arthritis
  • hemolytic anemia
  • tuberculosis

Question 11

Question
Cell mediated hypersensitivity reactions are related to:
Answer
  • Tuberculosis
  • Polyarteriitis nodosa
  • Bronchial asthma
  • Hashimoto thyroiditis

Question 12

Question
Indicate characteristics of the benign tumors.
Answer
  • expansive type of growth
  • fast speed of growth
  • invading and destroying the adjacent tissues
  • in general they have good prognosis

Question 13

Question
Indicate characteristics of the benign tumors
Answer
  • infiltrative growth
  • slow, long term developntcnt
  • usually they don't recur after complete surgery
  • their microscopic structure shows only tissue atypia

Question 14

Question
Indicate correct characteristics of the malignant tumors.
Answer
  • expansive growth
  • fast speed of growth
  • they have poor prognosis in general
  • composed of differentiated, mature cells

Question 15

Question
Indicate correct characteristics of the malignant tumors.
Answer
  • infiltrative growth
  • microscopic structure shows both tissue and cells atypia
  • good prognosis in general
  • metastasizing

Question 16

Question
Which is the most common way of metastasizing of epithelial tumors?
Answer
  • by lymphatics (lymphogenic metastases)
  • with blood (hematogenic metastases)
  • by cerebrospinal fluid
  • none of the above

Question 17

Question
What is papilloma?
Answer
  • malignant tumor of the covering epithelium
  • benign tumor of glandular epithelium
  • benign tumor of cover type epithelium
  • benign soft tissue tumor

Question 18

Question
Indicate the correct characteristic(s) for papilloma
Answer
  • it has tree-like stroma covered by differentiated stratified squamous epithelium
  • it has tree-like stroma covered by undifferentiated squamous epithelium with signs of cell atypia
  • stroma and parenchyma are difficult to distinguish
  • it doesn't have a capsule

Question 19

Question
What is the term used for malignant tumors of cover type epithelium?
Answer
  • adenocarcinoma
  • papilloma
  • carcinoma
  • sarcoma

Question 20

Question
What is the term used for malignant tumors of glandular type epithelial origin?
Answer
  • adenocarcinoma
  • adenoma
  • carcinoma
  • carcino-adenoma

Question 21

Question
What is the term used for benign tumors of glandular type epithelial origin?
Answer
  • papilloma
  • adenoma
  • teratoma
  • adenocarcinoma

Question 22

Question
Point the correct statement(s) about basal cell carcinoma.
Answer
  • it develops only on the skin
  • it can develop at any place with squamous epithelium
  • it characterizes with early lymphogenic and hematogenic metastases
  • very often it recurs at the same place after surgery

Question 23

Question
Keratinized squamous cell carcinoma:
Answer
  • develops only on the skin
  • can develop at any place with squamous epithelium
  • is highly undifferenciated malignant tumor
  • is a tumor composed of more differenciated cells with keratin production

Question 24

Question
What kind of structures are the cancer perls?
Answer
  • accumulation of keratin produced by more differentiated malignant cells originating from squamous epithelium
  • pink-coloured homogenous substance located in the centre of the tumor nests
  • accumulation of mucus produced by highly undifferentiated malignant cells located in the centre of the tumor nests
  • pink homogenous substance that accumulates in the stroma of the tumor

Question 25

Question
The gross appearance of which tumor is called "ulcus rodens"?
Answer
  • squamous cell carcinoma
  • melanoma
  • basal cell carcinoma
  • adenocarcinoma

Question 26

Question
Squamous cell carcinoma develops in the lung after:
Answer
  • acute bronchitis
  • chronic bronchitis accompanied by metaplasia
  • bronchial asthma
  • inhalaton of a foreign body

Question 27

Question
Indicate the correct microscopic features of cell atypia
Answer
  • polymorphism of cells and nuclei
  • low nucleus-cytoplasm index
  • typical mitoses
  • monster cells, hyperchromasia and polychromasia of nuclei

Question 28

Question
What are the characteristics of the nuclei of the malignant tumors?
Answer
  • polychromasia
  • normal staining pattern
  • hyperchromasia
  • increased nucleo-cytoplasmic index

Question 29

Question
Papillary carcinoma of the urinary bladder arises from:
Answer
  • squamous epithelium
  • transitional epithelium
  • glandular epithelium
  • smooth musculature

Question 30

Question
What is carcinoma in situ?
Answer
  • malignant tumor limited to the epithelium above the basal membrane
  • malignant tumor destroying the basal membrane but spreading no more than 5mm below it
  • benign tumor limited to the basal membrane
  • benign tumor of a great size compressing the surrounding tissues

Question 31

Question
What type of atypia could be seen in the benign tumors of glandular epithelium?
Answer
  • tissue atypia
  • cell atypia
  • both tissue and cell atypia
  • none of the above

Question 32

Question
Which staining is used for proving mucus production from gelatinous adenocarcinoma?
Answer
  • Congo red
  • Toluidin bleu, metachromasia is demonstrated
  • PAS reaction with amylase control
  • Van Gieson

Question 33

Question
Pericanalicular and intracanalicular are types of:
Answer
  • Ductal carcinoma of the breast
  • Paget's disease
  • Renal cell carcinoma
  • Fibroadenoma

Question 34

Question
Kruckenberg tumors are:
Answer
  • metastases from colon adenocarcinoma in the ovaries
  • metastases from pancreatic adenocarcinoma in the ovaries
  • metastases from gastric carcinoma in the ovaries
  • metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma in the ovaries

Question 35

Question
Pleomorphic adenoma could be seen mainly:
Answer
  • in the parotid gland
  • in the minor salivary glands
  • in the stomach
  • in the thyroid gland

Question 36

Question
Indicate the correct statements about fibroadenoma of the breast.
Answer
  • capsulated and lobulated tumor
  • non-capsulated malignant tumor with invasive growth
  • microscopically it has two types -- intracanalicular and pericanalicuJar
  • seen in older women

Question 37

Question
Mark the correct statements about papillary cystadenoma of the ovary:
Answer
  • malignant tumor
  • has cyst-like and papillary structures
  • histological characteristics include serous and mucinous types
  • it is a physiological change related to menstrual cycle

Question 38

Question
'Linitis plastica' is a gross subtype of:
Answer
  • gastric cancer
  • pancreatic cancer
  • breast cancer
  • uterine cancer

Question 39

Question
Grossly adenocarcinoma of the colon can be:
Answer
  • polypoid
  • ulcerous
  • nodular
  • all of the listed above

Question 40

Question
The terms "early cancer" and "advanced cancer" are used for:
Answer
  • gastric adenocarcinoma
  • adenocarcinoma of the endometrium
  • adenocarcinoma of the colon
  • breast cancer

Question 41

Question
Malignant tumors from soft tissue are called:
Answer
  • carcinomas
  • word for tissue origin+ suffix " —oma"
  • sarcomas
  • teratomas

Question 42

Question
Indicate the characteristics of the sarcomas.
Answer
  • seen in older age
  • grossly they look like "fish meat"
  • they give early hematogenic metastases
  • parenchyma and stroma are equally distributed

Question 43

Question
Mark the characteristics of the carcinomas.
Answer
  • seen in young people
  • they metastasize by the blood flow first
  • grossly they have granular surface
  • parenchyma and stroma are equally distributed

Question 44

Question
What kind of sarcoma could be seen in an immune deficiency?
Answer
  • Kaposi sarcoma
  • Ewing sarcoma
  • Rhabdomyosarcoma
  • Chondrosarcoma

Question 45

Question
Which of the following sarcomas have the worst prognosis?
Answer
  • liposarcoma
  • ostesarcoma
  • fibrosarcoma
  • leiomysarcoma

Question 46

Question
What staining can be used to distinguish leiomyoma uteri from fibroma?
Answer
  • Congo red
  • Perls
  • PAS reaction with PAS control
  • Van Gieson

Question 47

Question
Point the characteristics of the leiomyosarcoma.
Answer
  • polymorphism of cells and nuclei
  • hyper- and polychromasia of nuclei
  • typical mytoses
  • monster cells

Question 48

Question
What is hybernoma?
Answer
  • benign tumor of vascular origin
  • benign tumor originating from brown fat tissue
  • benign tumor originating from striated muscles
  • malignant tumor originating from pigment tissue

Question 49

Question
What are the signs of the atypia in a nevus?
Answer
  • asymmetry of the lesion, irregular borders
  • dark color, irregular color of the lesion
  • diameter less than 5mm
  • regular borders

Question 50

Question
How should a biopsy be done if there is a suspicion for the melanoma?
Answer
  • incision biopsy
  • punch biopsy
  • excision biopsy
  • brush biopsy

Question 51

Question
Point the most common localizations of the teratomas.
Answer
  • ovaries, testis
  • extremities
  • retroperitoneum
  • mediastinum

Question 52

Question
Which of the following are organoid teratomas
Answer
  • nephroblastoma
  • cholesteatoma
  • dermoid cyst
  • branchiogcnic cyst

Question 53

Question
Which of the following is organismoid teratoma
Answer
  • epidermoid cyst
  • teratocarcinoma
  • dermoid cyst
  • nefroblastoma

Question 54

Question
What is a nevus pigmentosus?
Answer
  • tumor-like process
  • tumor process
  • microscopically it contains mature melanocytes
  • microscopically it contains cells with signs of severe atypia and some of them contain melanin

Question 55

Question
What is a melanoma?
Answer
  • malignant congenital tumor
  • benign tumor composed of melanocytes
  • malignant tumor of pigment origin
  • none of the above

Question 56

Question
What is an achromatic melanoma?
Answer
  • benign form of melanoma
  • melanoma without melanin in the tumor cells
  • type of melanoma which can be proved with immunohistochemical tests
  • melanoma which is more differentiated

Question 57

Question
Point possible localizations of the nevus pigmentosus and melanoma.
Answer
  • skin
  • uvea
  • meninges
  • all of the above

Question 58

Question
Lentigo maligna, nodular, superficial, acral lentigenous are gross forms of:
Answer
  • melanoma
  • squamous cell carcinoma of the skin
  • basal cell carcinoma of the skin
  • nevus pigmentosus

Question 59

Question
Indicate immunohistochemical stains to prove melanoma
Answer
  • HMB-45
  • Ca-125
  • S-100
  • Cytokeratin

Question 60

Question
Which of the following tumors do not have a stroma
Answer
  • choriocarcinoma
  • seminoma
  • nephroblstoma
  • neuroblastoma

Question 61

Question
Indicate types of nevus pigmentosus:
Answer
  • acquired and congenital
  • junctional, compound, intradermal
  • benign and malignant nevus
  • ectodermal and endodermal nevus

Question 62

Question
Melanin is:
Answer
  • lipidogenic pigment
  • proteinogenic pigment

Question 63

Question
Where is lipofuscin deposited?
Answer
  • intracellularly
  • extracellularly

Question 64

Question
The frozen section ('gefrir') is:
Answer
  • rapid 'intraoperative' histological diagnosis
  • rapid cytology method
  • type of medical imaging
  • histochemical method

Question 65

Question
The term „pathognomonic change" means:
Answer
  • unexplained change
  • paradoxical change
  • sufficient to identify the diagnosis/lesion
  • diffuse inflammatory change

Question 66

Question
Most likely the cause of centrolobular fatty degeneration of hepatocytes is:
Answer
  • diabetes
  • intoxication
  • hypoxia
  • overfeeding

Question 67

Question
Hyaline — droplet degeneration has following characteristics:
Answer
  • extracellular
  • intracellular
  • protein accumulation
  • carbohydrate accumulation

Question 68

Question
What pigment is formed in the center of the hematoma?
Answer
  • hemosiderin
  • lipofuscin
  • hemomelanin
  • hematoidin

Question 69

Question
In which blood vessels are formed most frequently mixed thrombi?
Answer
  • large veins
  • arteries
  • capillaries
  • venules

Question 70

Question
Squamous cell carcinoma occurs most frequently in:
Answer
  • stomach
  • skin
  • bladder
  • larynx

Question 71

Question
Hyperemic-hemorrhagic zone occurs in:
Answer
  • tophi urici
  • nodular amyloidosis
  • anemic infarction
  • pneumonia

Question 72

Question
Which types of bleeding occur in the digestive system?
Answer
  • hemothorax
  • hemoptysis
  • melena
  • hematemesis

Question 73

Question
Which of the following cell damages are irreversible?
Answer
  • necrosis
  • apoptosis
  • vacuolar degeneration
  • cellular edema

Question 74

Question
Left ventricular hypertrophy can develop in:
Answer
  • cor pulmonale
  • systemic hypertension
  • mitral stenosis
  • aortic stenosis

Question 75

Question
Cancer cells which show no resemblance to the tissue from which the tun originates are called:
Answer
  • undifferentiated carcinoma
  • well-differentiated carcinoma
  • scirrhous type carcinoma
  • histioid cancer

Question 76

Question
Which of the following is correct for the mechanical jaundice?
Answer
  • indirect bilirubin prevails in blood
  • elevated urine urobilinogen
  • elevated urine bilirubin
  • stools are hyperpigmented

Question 77

Question
Basal cell carcinoma is localized most frequently on:
Answer
  • the skin of the forearm
  • the skin of the lower limbs
  • the skin on the palms
  • skin of the face

Question 78

Question
Caseous necrosis is characteristic for:
Answer
  • specific inflammation
  • tuberculosis
  • enzyme fat necrosis
  • chronic pyelonephritis

Question 79

Question
Bilaterally, on the skin of the eyelids of a young woman are seen yellow nodules with the size of a grain of rice. What is it?
Answer
  • xanthelasmas
  • nevus
  • efelides
  • hemosiderin deposition

Question 80

Question
Which of the following are protein accumulations?
Answer
  • in the epithelial cells of renal tubules
  • russel bodies
  • bodies of Mallory
  • asteroid cells

Question 81

Question
Hemorrhagic infarction develops in:
Answer
  • organs with end type arteries (end type blood supply)
  • blockage of arterioles
  • previous venous stasis
  • organs with double blood supply

Question 82

Question
How do we call the local depigmentation of the skin?
Answer
  • vitiligo
  • hemosiderosis
  • albinism
  • ohronosis

Question 83

Question
What kinds of techniques are used for the detection of the lipids:
Answer
  • freezing microtome
  • paraffin method
  • alcohol fixation
  • staining with Sudan Ill

Question 84

Question
The sequence of local structural changes in a disease is called
Answer
  • sanogenesis
  • pathogenesis
  • tanatogenesis
  • morphogenesis

Question 85

Question
" Tiger Heart " is diagnosed when:
Answer
  • subepicardial fat is increased
  • yellowish lines in the papillary muscles are seen
  • the interventricular septum is injured
  • infarcted area of the left ventricle in seen

Question 86

Question
Which of the following is correct for the mechanical jaundice:
Answer
  • it is parenchymal jaundice
  • there is posthepatic occlusion
  • direct bilirubin is increased
  • it is also called hemolytic jaundice

Question 87

Question
The risks involved in fast draining of large quantities of acistes are:
Answer
  • development of low oncotic pressure edema
  • bleeding into the abdominal cavity
  • massive arterial hyperemia in the abdominal vessels
  • hemodynamic collapse

Question 88

Question
"Mutilation" means :
Answer
  • form of biological mutation
  • pendulum movement of the blood
  • zonal hair loss
  • self amputation of phalanges

Question 89

Question
It is true that :
Answer
  • concentric hypertrophy is also called tonogenic
  • eccentric hypertrophy is myogenic
  • hypertrophy can be combined with hyperplasia
  • false type of hypertrophy is hyperplasia

Question 90

Question
Sources of fat embolism in the lung are
Answer
  • the bone marrow in the long bones
  • subcutaneous fat
  • liver with fatty degeneration
  • ulcerated atherosclerotic plaque of the aorta

Question 91

Question
Which of these factors lead to nutmeg liver?
Answer
  • short venous stasis
  • arterial hyperemia
  • chronic venous congestion
  • mitral stenosis

Question 92

Question
In the bronchi and nasal cavity may develop squamous cell carcinoma based on:
Answer
  • hypoplasia
  • histological accommodation
  • anaplasia
  • metaplasia

Question 93

Question
Amyloid demonstates following characteristics:
Answer
  • identified with Tioflavin S in fluorescence
  • shows metachromasia with Perls
  • identified with Congo rot in polarized light
  • ultrastructurally has fibrillary structure

Question 94

Question
Anaphylactic shock occurs in:
Answer
  • hypersensitivity reactions cytotoxic type
  • response induced by immune complexes
  • atopic reactions
  • delayed type hypersensitivity

Question 95

Question
A basal cell carcinoma is localized most frequently on:
Answer
  • the skin of the forearm
  • the skin of the lower limbs
  • the skin on the palms
  • the skin of the face

Question 96

Question
Reaction for Prussian blue is used for:
Answer
  • tattoos
  • proof of bilirubin
  • proof of hemosiderin
  • in hemochromatosis

Question 97

Question
How could an air embolism be proved:
Answer
  • in the presence of witnesses
  • autopsy in a bathtub
  • puncturing the right ventricle
  • puncturing of the left ventricle

Question 98

Question
Which enzymes are involved in a melanogenesis?
Answer
  • hyaluronidase
  • tvrosinase
  • dopa oxidase
  • lipase

Question 99

Question
Infarctions of which organs could often lead to the death of the patient?
Answer
  • renal infarction
  • infarction of the spleen
  • infarction of heart
  • cerebral infarction

Question 100

Question
In cancers with epithelial origin:
Answer
  • cells are arranged in sheets, nests or cords
  • resemble 'fish meat'
  • metastasize primarily by blood
  • cells show atypia