The [blank_start]insula[blank_end] is a structure that sits on top of the caudate-putamen and interacts with amygdala, and plays a major role in the perception of pain.
What functional processes in the brain, exacerbate PAIN in persons with MDD?
White matter abnormalities
Decreased volume in the hippocampus and PFC
Altered regional blood flow
emotion-related brain activation is shifted to the dorsal anterior insula
T or F. The most current Monoamine Hypothesis posits that there are depleted monoamine levels (5HT, NE, DA) and these deficiencies can be measured in the plasma, CSF and brain tissue.
The NT Receptor hypothesis posits that abnormalities in the receptors for monoamine NT's leads to [blank_start]depression[blank_end]. Further, deficient activity of monoanime NT's causes [blank_start]upregulation[blank_end] of postsynaptic NT receptors.
Which important signal conduction cascades are triggered by neurotransmitters?
Neurotrophin and Hormone linked systems
BDNF and MTHFR
G-Protein and Ion Channel Linked Systems (most psychotropic drugs target these systems)
In the Second Messenger Malfunction Theory, problems in the [blank_start]2nd[blank_end] messenger system can [blank_start]impair[blank_end] neurotransmitter function [blank_start]without[blank_end] changes in monoamine levels or receptor numbers. This results in a [blank_start]downstream[blank_end] impact on gene expression.
Serotonin is a monoamine, specifically an [blank_start]indoleamine[blank_end].
5HT is produced in the [blank_start]raphe[blank_end] nuclei.
Disruption to the normal connection of serotonergic nuclei to this system, is thought to contribute to depression?
Second Messenger Monaminergic System
Match the monoamine circuit to its function(s):
The PMHNP is explaining to her patient the role of 5HT in depression, specifically the "Behavioral Inhibition" system. What is the best explanation of this system below?
It is linked to pleasure and reward, and this becomes overactive in depression, decreasing inhibition.
It is linked to the stimulus of the PFC, and subsequently behavioral arousal
It is tuned to responding to fear or anxiety producing stimuli
NE is a monoamine, specifically a [blank_start]catecholamine[blank_end].
NE in the CNS is produced in the [blank_start]nucleus[blank_end] [blank_start]locus[blank_end] [blank_start]ceruleus[blank_end].
Put the correct statement below:
NE stimulates the NA, then the PFC and then the VTA
NE stiumulates the PFC, then the VTA and then the NA
NE stimulates the VTA, then the PFC and then the NA
NE stimulates the PFC, then the amygdala and the the NA
NE is modulated by which part of the brain?
Dopamine is a monoamine, specifically a [blank_start]cathecolamine[blank_end].
The [blank_start]mesolimbic[blank_end] pathway is involved in pleasure and reward; stimulation of this pathway results in a sense of pleasure.
The [blank_start]mesocortical[blank_end] pathway is involved in motivational behavior, and is tied to pleasure and reward.
Monoamine Hypothesis Made Simple for Patient Education-Label the functions with the correct neurotrasmitter.