Neuroscience-Mood Disorders

Maggie Throckmorton
Quiz by Maggie Throckmorton, updated more than 1 year ago
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Quiz on Neuroscience-Mood Disorders, created by Maggie Throckmorton on 03/27/2018.
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Resource summary

Question 1

Question
As the provider, you are looking at genetic testing for your patient who you have diagnosed with depression. You know that the most noteworthy genes in MDD are (select all that apply):
Answer
  • MTHFR
  • SLC6A4
  • BDNF
  • ANK3
  • CYP2D6

Question 2

Question
Label the 5 major regions of dysfunction in depressed brains.
Answer
  • Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)
  • Orbital frontal cortex
  • Amygdala
  • Hippocampus
  • Nucleus Accumbens

Question 3

Question
The [blank_start]insula[blank_end] is a structure that sits on top of the caudate-putamen and interacts with amygdala, and plays a major role in the perception of pain.
Answer
  • insula

Question 4

Question
What functional processes in the brain, exacerbate PAIN in persons with MDD?
Answer
  • White matter abnormalities
  • Decreased volume in the hippocampus and PFC
  • Altered regional blood flow
  • emotion-related brain activation is shifted to the dorsal anterior insula

Question 5

Question
T or F. The most current Monoamine Hypothesis posits that there are depleted monoamine levels (5HT, NE, DA) and these deficiencies can be measured in the plasma, CSF and brain tissue.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 6

Question
The NT Receptor hypothesis posits that abnormalities in the receptors for monoamine NT's leads to [blank_start]depression[blank_end]. Further, deficient activity of monoanime NT's causes [blank_start]upregulation[blank_end] of postsynaptic NT receptors.
Answer
  • depression
  • upregulation

Question 7

Question
Which important signal conduction cascades are triggered by neurotransmitters?
Answer
  • Neurotrophin and Hormone linked systems
  • BDNF and MTHFR
  • G-Protein and Ion Channel Linked Systems (most psychotropic drugs target these systems)

Question 8

Question
In the Second Messenger Malfunction Theory, problems in the [blank_start]2nd[blank_end] messenger system can [blank_start]impair[blank_end] neurotransmitter function [blank_start]without[blank_end] changes in monoamine levels or receptor numbers. This results in a [blank_start]downstream[blank_end] impact on gene expression.
Answer
  • 2nd
  • 1st
  • impair
  • increase
  • without
  • with
  • downstream
  • upstream

Question 9

Question
Serotonin is a monoamine, specifically an [blank_start]indoleamine[blank_end].
Answer
  • indoleamine

Question 10

Question
5HT is produced in the [blank_start]raphe[blank_end] nuclei.
Answer
  • raphe

Question 11

Question
Disruption to the normal connection of serotonergic nuclei to this system, is thought to contribute to depression?
Answer
  • RAAS
  • Limbic System
  • Amygdala Pathway
  • Second Messenger Monaminergic System

Question 12

Question
Match the monoamine circuit to its function(s): 5HT: [blank_start]Affect[blank_end] [blank_start]Anxiety[blank_end] [blank_start]Distress[blank_end] [blank_start]Behavioral Inhibition[blank_end] NE [blank_start]Arousal[blank_end] [blank_start]Responsiveness[blank_end] [blank_start]Alerting Signals[blank_end] DA [blank_start]Reward[blank_end] [blank_start]Interest[blank_end][blank_start]Motivation[blank_end]
Answer
  • Affect
  • Anxiety
  • Distress
  • Behavioral Inhibition
  • Arousal
  • Responsiveness
  • Alerting Signals
  • Reward
  • Interest
  • Motivation

Question 13

Question
The PMHNP is explaining to her patient the role of 5HT in depression, specifically the "Behavioral Inhibition" system. What is the best explanation of this system below?
Answer
  • It is linked to pleasure and reward, and this becomes overactive in depression, decreasing inhibition.
  • It is linked to the stimulus of the PFC, and subsequently behavioral arousal
  • It is tuned to responding to fear or anxiety producing stimuli

Question 14

Question
NE is a monoamine, specifically a [blank_start]catecholamine[blank_end].
Answer
  • catecholamine

Question 15

Question
NE in the CNS is produced in the [blank_start]nucleus[blank_end] [blank_start]locus[blank_end] [blank_start]ceruleus[blank_end].
Answer
  • nucleus
  • locus
  • ceruleus

Question 16

Question
Put the correct statement below:
Answer
  • NE stimulates the NA, then the PFC and then the VTA
  • NE stiumulates the PFC, then the VTA and then the NA
  • NE stimulates the VTA, then the PFC and then the NA
  • NE stimulates the PFC, then the amygdala and the the NA

Question 17

Question
NE is modulated by which part of the brain?
Answer
  • PFC
  • Nucleus Accumbens
  • Locus Coeruleus
  • Amygdala

Question 18

Question
Dopamine is a monoamine, specifically a [blank_start]cathecolamine[blank_end].
Answer
  • catecholamine

Question 19

Question
The [blank_start]mesolimbic[blank_end] pathway is involved in pleasure and reward; stimulation of this pathway results in a sense of pleasure.
Answer
  • mesolimbic
  • mesocortical

Question 20

Question
The [blank_start]mesocortical[blank_end] pathway is involved in motivational behavior, and is tied to pleasure and reward.
Answer
  • mesocortical
  • mesolimbic

Question 21

Question
Monoamine Hypothesis Made Simple for Patient Education-Label the functions with the correct neurotrasmitter.
Answer
  • Alertness, Energy
  • Attention, Motivation, Pleasure, Reward
  • Obsessions and Compulsions

Question 22

Question
The most used neurotransmitter in the nervous system is [blank_start]glutamate[blank_end].
Answer
  • glutamate

Question 23

Question
What is the MOA of ketamine, and the reason why it may be useful in the treatment of depression?
Answer
  • It activates glutamate in the limbic system, mitigating the resulting dysfunction in the balance of glutamate receptor activation
  • It blocks the excitatory post synaptic response of glutamate.
  • NMDA is one of the main receptors for glutamate, and ketamine is an NMDA receptor blocker.

Question 24

Question
Label the HPA Axis diagram sequentially with the correct parts of the brain:
Answer
  • Hypothalamus
  • Anterior Pituitary
  • Adrenal Cortex

Question 25

Question
Chronic exposure to stress & high levels of [blank_start]glucocorticoids[blank_end] leads to neuronal atrophy and death.
Answer
  • glucocorticoids
  • cytokeines

Question 26

Question
T of F. One of the effects of chronic stress is decreased neurogenesis and hippocampal atrophy.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 27

Question
Cytokines can (select all that apply):
Answer
  • Induce changes in mood and CNS function
  • impact neurotrasmitter metabolism
  • can cross the blood-brain barrier to have neurotoxic effects causing neuronal death
  • Cause psyhcosis
  • Play a not yet fully understood role in OCD

Question 28

Question
Two the likely risk genes in Bipolar are the [blank_start]CACNA1C[blank_end] and [blank_start]ANK3.[blank_end]
Answer
  • CACNA1C
  • SLC6A4
  • ANK3.
  • BDNF

Question 29

Question
T or F. Genes = Probabilism not determinism.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 30

Question
In bipolar disorder, there is thought to be decreased size and activity in the [blank_start]PFC[blank_end] (use the abbreviation) and [blank_start]limbic[blank_end] hyperactivity.
Answer
  • PFC
  • limbic

Question 31

Question
In bipolar disorder, hippocampus volume is [blank_start]decreased[blank_end].
Answer
  • decreased
  • increased

Question 32

Question
In mania frontal activity is most [blank_start]decreased[blank_end] and limbic activity is most [blank_start]increased.[blank_end]
Answer
  • decreased
  • increased.

Question 33

Question
In bipolar mania, which neurotransmitter have greater activity (select all that apply)?
Answer
  • NE
  • 5HT
  • DA
  • GABA

Question 34

Question
What is the Kindling Theory of Bipolar?
Answer
  • Your brain is like a slow, burning pile of smoldering sticks
  • Easily combustible small sticks or twigs used for starting a fire.
  • A process by which a brain event is both initiated and its recurrence made more likely. Essentially more vulnerable to future episodes.

Question 35

Question
This is a nice graphic for neurocircuitry of depression
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 36

Question
Nice graphic for Bipolar.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 37

Question
Additional helpful graphic
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 38

Question
Simple Neurotransmitter Explanation
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 39

Question
Neurotransmitter Imbalance Chart
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 40

Question
Last one...there were just so many helpful charts out there!
Answer
  • True
  • False
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