BIOL 2P97

Kelly B
Quiz by , created over 1 year ago

Quiz on BIOL 2P97, created by Kelly B on 04/14/2018.

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Kelly B
Created by Kelly B over 1 year ago
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Question 1

Question
CO2 is produced through which of the following metabolic pathways?
Answer
  • Glycolysis
  • Citric Acid Cycle
  • Conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA
  • Only B and C are correct

Question 2

Question
CO2 is produced through which of the following metabolic pathways?
Answer
  • Glycolysis
  • Citric Acid Cycle
  • Conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA
  • All of the above.
  • Only B and C are correct

Question 3

Question
___________ is the primary substrate for ATP production.
Answer
  • Amino acids.
  • Fatty acids.
  • Glucose.
  • Fructose.
  • None of the above.

Question 4

Question
The energy in ATP is released during _______?
Answer
  • The addition of an inorganic phosphate group to ADP.
  • The hydrolysis of the terminal phosphate group of ATP.
  • Catabolic reactions.
  • The electron transport system.
  • All of the above.

Question 5

Question
Hydrolysis is the chemical breakdown of a compound due to reaction with water.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 6

Question
The majority of body fluid is found within the _______.
Answer
  • Interstitial fluid.
  • Blood plasma.
  • Intracellular fluid.
  • Extracellular fluid.

Question 7

Question
Gastrointestinal tract performs:
Answer
  • Digestion.
  • Absorption.
  • Secretion.
  • Motility.
  • All of the above.

Question 8

Question
Which of the following is not used to digest proteins?
Answer
  • Trypsin.
  • chymotrypsin.
  • pepsin.
  • amylase.
  • All of the above are used to digest proteins.

Question 9

Question
Secretions from the liver are stored in the ______ until food has been ingested.
Answer
  • Pancreas.
  • Small intestine.
  • Large intestine.
  • Gall bladder.
  • Spleen.

Question 10

Question
Gastric acid (HCL aka stomach acid) is produced by ________ cells of the stomach.
Answer
  • Parietal Cells
  • Chief cells.
  • D cells.
  • G cells.
  • Mucous neck cells.

Question 11

Question
Long-term regulation of food intake can be achieved by?
Answer
  • Ghrelin
  • Pancreatic peptide
  • Peptide YY
  • Oxyntomodulin
  • Leptin

Question 12

Question
The storage of which of the following nutrients cause(s) water retention in the body?
Answer
  • Carbohydrates
  • Proteins
  • Triglycerides
  • Only A and B.

Question 13

Question
Short-term regulation of food intake can be achieved by?
Answer
  • Ghrelin
  • Pancreatic peptide
  • Peptide YY
  • Oxyntomodulin
  • All of the above

Question 14

Question
In the absence of O2, energy in the form of ATP is primarily produced by ______.
Answer
  • Glycolysis
  • The citric acid cycle
  • The electron transport chain
  • The conversion of pyruvate to lactate
  • All of the above.

Question 15

Question
Which of the following would be expected to increase the rate of chemical reaction?
Answer
  • Increasing the activation energy
  • Decreasing amount of reactions available
  • Increasing the amount of products
  • Decreasing activation energy
  • None of the above

Question 16

Question
Which of the following statements about enzymes is incorrect?
Answer
  • The activity of an enzyme can be regulated by factors present within a cell.
  • Most enzymes in humans have an optimal activity near the body's internal pH.
  • Enzymes lower the activation energy of a reaction.
  • All enzymes are produced in active form.
  • All of the above statements are correct.

Question 17

Question
Facilitated diffusion uses ______ to move molecules across the plasma membrane.
Answer
  • Enzymes
  • Carrier protiens
  • Electron shuttles.
  • Structural proteins.
  • None of the above.

Question 18

Question
The majority of digestion occurs within the ______.
Answer
  • Stomach.
  • Small intestine.
  • Large intestines.
  • Esophagus.
  • Mouth.

Question 19

Question
Which of the following types of carbohydrates can be absorbed by intestinal epithelial cells?
Answer
  • Polysaccharides
  • Trisaccharides
  • Disaccharides
  • Monosaccharides
  • All of the above

Question 20

Question
Bile salts are important for digestion of _______.
Answer
  • Carbohydrates.
  • Proteins.
  • Lipids.
  • Amino acids.
  • None of the above.

Question 21

Question
______ refers to the loss of electromagnetic energy within the electromagnetic spectrum?
Answer
  • Conduction
  • Convection
  • Evaporation
  • Radiation
  • None of the above

Question 22

Question
Sweating utilizes which of the following mechanisms of heat loss?
Answer
  • Conduction
  • Convection
  • Evaporation
  • Radiation

Question 23

Question
Which of the following transport mechanisms moves molecules against their concentration gradient?
Answer
  • Simple diffusion
  • Facilitated diffusion
  • Active transport
  • All of the above
  • None of the above

Question 24

Question
Primary active transport functions by taking energy via the hydrolysis of ATP, whereas secondary active transport functions by taking energy from stored ionic concentrations within the cell (aka concentration gradients).
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 25

Question
______ refers to all chemical reactions that take place within an organism.
Answer
  • Catabolism
  • Anabolism
  • Metabolism
  • Digestion
  • Secretion

Question 26

Question
The outermost layer of the gastrointestinal wall is the?
Answer
  • Mucosa
  • Submucosa
  • Muscularis externa
  • Serosa
  • Muscularis intera

Question 27

Question
The myenteric plexus can be found within the
Answer
  • Mucosa
  • Submucosa
  • Muscularis externa
  • Serosa
  • Mesentry

Question 28

Question
Which of the following enzymes is produced in the stomach?
Answer
  • Gastrin
  • Secretin
  • Trypsin
  • Pepsin
  • Amylase

Question 29

Question
Glucagon is produced by the ______ in the pancreas.
Answer
  • Alpha cells
  • Beta cells
  • D cells
  • G cells
  • None of the above

Question 30

Question
Which of the following nutrients could be used to sustain normal bodily function during months of starvation?
Answer
  • Proteins
  • Carbohydrates
  • Lipids
  • All of the above
  • Both A and B

Question 31

Question
______ refers to the transfer of heat between two touching objects
Answer
  • Conduction
  • Convection
  • Evaporation
  • Radiation

Question 32

Question
Which of the following is not a property of carrier-mediated transport?
Answer
  • Specificity.
  • Competition.
  • Saturation.
  • All of the above are properties of carrier mediated transport.
  • Both A and B are not properties of carrier-mediated transport.

Question 33

Question
The maintenance of a stable internal environment is known as ______.
Answer
  • Homeostasis.
  • Equilibrium.
  • Osmosis.
  • Disequilibrium.
  • None of the above.

Question 34

Question
Which of the following processes is used to move large molecules into a cell?
Answer
  • Exocytosis
  • Endocytosis
  • Phagocytosis
  • All of the above
  • Only B and C

Question 35

Question
______ increases blood glucose levels during the fasted state?
Answer
  • Glucagon
  • Insulin
  • Leptin
  • Neuropeptide Y
  • None of the above.

Question 36

Question
Material present within the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract are considered to be external to the body.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 37

Question
Glucagon is secreted by
Answer
  • Pancreatic alpha cells
  • Pancreatic beta cells
  • Stomach epithelial cells
  • Intestinal epithelial cells
  • The hypothalamus

Question 38

Question
Which one of the following statements about glucose homeostasis is correct?
Answer
  • Insulin is secreted in response to a decrease in blood glucose levels.
  • Glucagon is secreted in response to elevated blood glucose levels.
  • Insulin promotes the uptake of glucose into tissues.
  • Glucagon promotes the uptake of glucose into tissues .
  • Diabetes melleitus is characterized by prolonged periods of hypoglycemia (low blood sugar).

Question 39

Question
Which of the following scenarios would be expected to cause weight gain.
Answer
  • Decrease in resting metabolic rate
  • Increase in thermic effect of feeding
  • Decrease in food consumption
  • Increase in physical activity
  • None of the above

Question 40

Question
Energy metabolism occurs by taking oxygen and various carbon fuels in the form of fat, protein, or carbohydrates and breaking them down into ATP.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 41

Question
_______ is an anabolic reaction that is fueled by ATP.
Answer
  • Cell growth
  • Cell repair
  • Making proteins
  • DNA and RNA synthesis
  • All of the above

Question 42

Question
ATP production occurs through ______.
Answer
  • Glycolysis
  • Citric Acid Cycle
  • Beta oxidation
  • Protein Catabolism
  • All of the above

Question 43

Question
Substrate level phosphorylation is _______ .
Answer
  • direct transfer of a phosphoryl group to ADP or GDP from another phosphorylated compound.
  • the loss of a phosphoryl group from ADP or GDP to a phosphorlyated comound.
  • Doesn't exist biologically.

Question 44

Question
High energy electrons are stripped form macromolecules during glycolysis, CaC, and pyruvate oxidation and sent to undergo beta oxidation for additional ATP production.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 45

Question
The starting material for glycolysis includes
Answer
  • glucose and 2 ATP
  • 4 ATP and 2 glucose
  • 2 ATP and 2 glucose
  • just glucose

Question 46

Question
The end products of glycolysis include
Answer
  • 2 pyruvate molecules, 4 ATP, 2 NADH
  • 2 pyruvate molecules, 2 ATP, 4 NADH
  • 2 pyruvate molecules, 4 ATP, 4 NADH
  • 2 pyruvate molecules, 4 ATP, 2 NADH, 2 FADH2

Question 47

Question
If oxygen is available, what happens to pyruvate?
Answer
  • It enters the mitochondria and is converted into acetycl-CoA
  • It cannot enter the mitochondria and stays within the cytosol
  • It enters the electron transport chain
  • It enters the mitochondrial matrix

Question 48

Question
The citric acid cycle will not take pyruvate on its own - it must be converted to acetyl-CoA to enter the cycle.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 49

Question
Acetyl-CoA = carrying a pyruvate. Coenzyme A = not carrying a pyruvate.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 50

Question
When pyruvate is converted to acetyl-CoA an electron is taken from pyruvate to create an NADH.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 51

Question
What happens to pyruvate if O2 is not present?
Answer
  • It is not shuttled into the mitochondria.
  • It is converted into lactate.
  • It enters the electron transport chain.
  • It is dissolved.
  • Both A and B.

Question 52

Question
In the process of pyruvate oxidation what are processes are involved:
Answer
  • Coenzyme A and pyruvate are converted by dehydrogenase into acetyl-CoA
  • Free energy released from pyruvate joins NAD+ to create NADH.
  • CO2 is produced in the production of acetyl-CoA which must be expelled from the cell.
  • All of the above.

Question 53

Question
When pyruvate is converted into lactate is enters the blood and travels to the liver where it breaks down back into pyruvate - next pyruvate is broken into its substrates which form together into a 6-carbon glucose which is put back into the blood for glycolysis.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 54

Question
What are the end products of one cycle through the citric acid cycle?
Answer
  • 3 NADH, 1 FADH2, 2 CO2, 1 ATP
  • 1 NADH, 2 FADH2, 5 CO2, 3 ATP
  • It has to go through twice to get anything.
  • 6 NADH, 2 FADH2, 4 CO2, 2 ATP

Question 55

Question
In the electron transport chain redox reactions fuel proton pumps that move H+ ions against their concentration gradient which drives ATP synthase within the mitochondrial matrix - this is known as the proton motive force.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 56

Question
Glycogenesis is the breakdown of fructose to create glucose.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 57

Question
Where is glycogen mainly stored?
Answer
  • Liver
  • Gall bladder
  • Pancreas
  • Small intestine

Question 58

Question
Lipase breaks down triglycerides into
Answer
  • 3 fatty acids and a glycerol
  • 5 fatty acids and a glucose
  • 3 fatty acids and a glucose
  • 3 fatty acids and a glycogen

Question 59

Question
When lipase breaks down a triglyceride what happens to its substrates?
Answer
  • glycerol enters glycolysis and the fatty acids undergo beta oxidation
  • they all enter the blood stream and go to the liver for storage
  • All of the above are possible.

Question 60

Question
Beta oxidation takes a fatty acid and breaks it down into 2 carbon acyl groups. These groups are then converted into acetyl-CoA which enters the CaC.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 61

Question
Glycogenolysis is the breakdown of glycogen into glucose. Glycogenesis is the formation of glycogen from sugar. Gluconeogenesis is the formation of glucose from substrates.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 62

Question
Amino acids, glycerol, and lactate are substrates used to create glucose in glucogenesis and this occurs mainly in the liver.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 63

Question
What are the functions of the cellular membrane?
Answer
  • Structure
  • Communication
  • Physical Isolation
  • Regulation of Exchange
  • All of the above

Question 64

Question
Desmones are cytoskeletal elements (aka keratin filaments) that attached to a proteinaceious plaque on the inner surface of the cell membrane. What do they do?
Answer
  • They allow neighbouring cells to be rigidly anchored to one another.
  • They allow for ions to pass through.
  • They prevent ions passing through.
  • They weaken bonds between cells.

Question 65

Question
What do G-protein coupled receptors do?
Answer
  • Enable communication across cellular membranes
  • Disable communication across cellular membranes
  • None of the above
  • All of the above

Question 66

Question
What are the four general functions of the digestive system?
Answer
  • Absorption, digestion, motility, secretion.
  • Absorption, motility, secretion, endocytosis.
  • Motility, secretion, transportation, exocytosis.
  • None of the above.

Question 67

Question
_____ is the movement of material from the lumen, into the cells, and into the extracellular fluid.
Answer
  • Absorption
  • Secretion
  • Digestion
  • Ingestion

Question 68

Question
Digestion is the chemical and mechanical breakdown of food.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 69

Question
The stomach is made up of the ________
Answer
  • Fundus
  • Body
  • Antrum
  • Lumen

Question 70

Question
What makes up the small intestine?
Answer
  • Duodenum
  • Ileum
  • Jujenum
  • Secum

Question 71

Question
What are the accessory organs?
Answer
  • Liver
  • Gall bladder
  • Pancreas
  • The platypus

Question 72

Question
Which cells neutralize chyme through the secretion of bicarbonate.
Answer
  • Epethelial cells
  • Pancreatic duct cells
  • Parietal cells
  • A and B

Question 73

Question
What are the glands responsible for producing saliva within the mouth?
Answer
  • Parotid
  • Sublingual
  • Submandibular
  • Cricoid
  • Alveolar

Question 74

Question
The gastric glands are made up of parietal cells, mucous neck cells, and chief cells.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 75

Question
The jujenum contains specialized structures that help protect the body from micro-organisms in food.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 76

Question
CCK is secreted to decrease gastric motility and stimulate the release of bile and pancreatic enzymes when _____ is present.
Answer
  • Carbohydrates
  • Proteins
  • Lipids
  • Yo momma

Question 77

Question
When _______ is present GIP and GLP-1 are released to stimulate insulin secretion.
Answer
  • Carbohydrates
  • Lipids
  • Protein
  • Kittens

Question 78

Question
Secretin
Answer
  • Inhibits gastric HCL secretion
  • Inhibits motility
  • Stimulates HCO3 secretion (bicarbonate)
  • All of the above

Question 79

Question
The large intestine can be divided into
Answer
  • ascending, descending, and sigmoid colon
  • ascending and descending colon
  • ascending, descending, and freudian colon

Question 80

Question
The hepatic portal vein prevents blood sugar from spiking by manipulating incoming nutrients before they go into circulation.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 81

Question
What is the difference between exocrine and endocrine functions of the pancreas?
Answer
  • Endocrine; takes materials in from the lumen
  • Exocrine; takes material out into interstitial fluid
  • None of the above
  • All of the above

Question 82

Question
Proteins must be broken down into peptides and amino acids for digestion and absorption.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 83

Question
Type one diabetes is an autoimmune deficiency that results in the loss of pancreatic beta cells.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 84

Question
What does protein digestion produce?
Answer
  • oligopeptides
  • amino acids
  • lipids
  • oligopeptides and amino acids
  • lipids and amino acids

Question 85

Question
What are lipids absorbed as
Answer
  • monoglycerides
  • fatty acids
  • cholesterol
  • None of the above
  • All of the above

Question 86

Question
Lipase and co-lipase are responsible for digesting triglycerides
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 87

Question
All substrates of lipids are digested within miscelles.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 88

Question
Chylomicrons are made up of
Answer
  • fatty acids
  • monoglycerides
  • fructose
  • sucrose
  • cholesterol
  • some proteins

Question 89

Question
Chylomicrons are excytosed into the blood
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 90

Question
What is lipemia?
Answer
  • when blood serum appears clear after a high protein meal
  • when blood serum appears cloudy after a high fat meal
  • when urine appears clear after a high protein meal
  • when urine appears cloudy after a high fat meal

Question 91

Question
How do chylomicrons enter the blood
Answer
  • through the thoracic duct
  • through the portal vein
  • through the aorta
  • none of the above