Compendium 7 - How do we get rid of toxic wastes?

Jessica Bulley
Quiz by Jessica Bulley, updated more than 1 year ago
Jessica Bulley
Created by Jessica Bulley over 3 years ago
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Compendium 7 - How do we get rid of toxic wastes?

Resource summary

Question 1

Question
Select Four organs of the urinary system
Answer
  • Bladder
  • Kidneys
  • Ureter
  • Urethra
  • Vagina
  • Esophagus

Question 2

Question
Select the Three main functions of the kidneys
Answer
  • Filtration - occurs in the renal corpuscle
  • Tubular reabsorption - occurs in the PCT and DCT
  • Tubular secretion - occurs in the DCT
  • Removal of toxic waste

Question 3

Question
Describe the location of the Kidneys
Answer
  • posterior muscular wall of the abdominal cavity
  • anterior muscular wall of the abdominal cavity

Question 4

Question
The left kidney is located slightly more superior than the right kidney due to the larger size of the liver on the right side of the body.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 5

Question
The right kidney is located slightly more superior than the left kidney due to the larger size of the liver on the right side of the body.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 6

Question
Identify the external structural layers of the Kidney:
Answer
  • • renal capsule - immediate lining covering the renal tissue • adipose tissue - fat layer outside the renal capsule • renal fascia - outer layer, anchors kidney and attaches it to surrounding tissue
  • • renal capsule - outer layer, anchors kidney and attaches it to surrounding tissue • adipose tissue - fat layer outside the renal capsule • renal fascia - immediate lining covering the renal tissue

Question 7

Question
The nephron is the functional unit of the kidney, which forms urine. The Four parts of the nephron are:
Answer
  • • Distal convoluted tubule (DCT)
  • • Loop of Henle
  • • Proximal convoluted tubule (PCT)
  • • Renal corpuscle
  • • Renal bowmans capsule

Question 8

Question
Describe the three processes necessary for urine formation.
Answer
  • Filtration - occurs in the renal corpuscle
  • Tubular reabsorption - occurs in the PCT and DCT
  • Tubular secretion - occurs in the DCT
  • Tubular secretion - occurs in the PCT and DCT

Question 9

Question
Describe the components that make up the urinary process
Answer
  • Filtration occurs in the renal corpuscle, which consists of the glomerulus and Bowman’s capsule. Blood enters the glomerulus, and the fluid and solutes in the blood are pushed through the glomerular capillary wall and enter the Bowman’s capsule, which is the first part of the tubule. This solution is called filtrate and a small amount of it will eventually become urine.
  • Filtration occurs in the renal capsule, which consists of the glomerulus and renal corpuscle. Blood enters the glomerulus, and the fluid and solutes in the blood are pushed through the glomerular capillary wall and enter the Bowman’s capsule, which is the first part of the tubule. This solution is called filtrate and a small amount of it will eventually become urine.

Question 10

Question
Reabsorption from the filtrate is a two-step process. Referring to Figure 9.2, the two steps are: [blank_start](1)[blank_end] Movement of the filtrate into the cells lining the nephron through the apical surface of the cell or the apical membrane. [blank_start](2)[blank_end] Then from these cells into the blood through the basal surface of the cell or basal membrane.
Answer
  • (1)
  • (2)
  • (2)
  • (1)

Question 11

Question
Which one of the following structures is known as the ‘functional unit of the kidney’?
Answer
  • a. the renal corpuscle
  • b. the glomerulus
  • c. the nephron
  • d. the renal pyramids

Question 12

Question
Which one of the following structures is considered to be a part of the nephron?
Answer
  • a. the glomerulus
  • b. ureter
  • c. collecting duct
  • d. renal pelvis

Question 13

Question
Which one of the following substances would you expect to find in the filtrate of a healthy individual?
Answer
  • a. red blood cells
  • b. sodium ions
  • c. large proteins
  • d. white blood cells

Question 14

Question
Which one of the following substances would be normally re-absorbed into the kidney tubules?
Answer
  • glucose
  • ammonia
  • large proteins
  • red blood cells

Question 15

Question
Which hormone promotes water retention in the body?
Answer
  • aquaporin hormone
  • thyrotropin hormone
  • oxytocin hormone
  • anti-diuretic hormone

Question 16

Question
What is the name of the muscle found in the wall of the bladder?
Answer
  • cardiac
  • skeletal
  • fast twitch
  • detrusor

Question 17

Question
What is the name of the reflex that controls urination?
Answer
  • sympathetic
  • micturition
  • baroreceptor
  • parasympathetic

Question 18

Question
Nephron Diagram: 1. [blank_start]Loop of Henle[blank_end] 2. [blank_start]Collecting duct[blank_end] 3. [blank_start]Proximal convoluted tubule[blank_end] 4. [blank_start]Distal convoluted tubule[blank_end] 5. [blank_start]Cortex of kidney[blank_end] 6. [blank_start]Medulla of kidney[blank_end] The two parts of the renal corpuscle are: 1. [blank_start]Glomerulus[blank_end] 2. [blank_start]Glomerular capsule[blank_end]
Answer
  • Loop of Henle
  • Collecting duct
  • Proximal convoluted tubule
  • Distal convoluted tubule
  • Cortex of kidney
  • Medulla of kidney
  • Glomerulus (1st)
  • Glomerular capsule (2nd)

Question 19

Question
What type of nephron is nephron A?
Answer
  • Juxtamedullary
  • Cortical

Question 20

Question
What type of nephron is nephron B?
Answer
  • Cortical
  • Juxtamedullary

Question 21

Question
Juxtamedullary: There are two types of nephrons: Superficial cortical nephrons, which have their glomeruli in the outer cortex. They have shorter loops of Henle, which dip only into the outer medulla. Juxtamedullary nephrons, which have their glomeruli near the corticomedullary border.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 22

Question
Creatinine: A chemical waste molecule that is generated from muscle metabolism.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 23

Question
The nephron is the functional unit of the kidney, which forms urine. The parts of the nephron are: • Renal corpuscle • Proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) • Loop of Henle • Distal convoluted tubule (DCT)
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 24

Question
Filtration occurs in the renal corpuscle, which consists of the [blank_start]glomerulus[blank_end] and [blank_start]Bowman’s capsule[blank_end].
Answer
  • glomerulus
  • loop of henle
  • Bowman’s capsule
  • distal convoluted tubules

Question 25

Question
Filtration: Filtration occurs in the [blank_start]renal corpuscle[blank_end], which consists of the [blank_start]glomerulus[blank_end] and [blank_start]Bowman’s capsule[blank_end]. [blank_start]Blood[blank_end] enters the glomerulus, and the fluid and [blank_start]solutes[blank_end] in the blood are pushed through the glomerular [blank_start]capillary wall[blank_end] and enter the Bowman’s capsule, which is the first part of the [blank_start]tubule[blank_end]. This solution is called [blank_start]filtrate[blank_end] and a small amount of it will eventually become [blank_start]urine[blank_end].
Answer
  • renal corpuscle
  • Bowman’s capsule
  • Blood
  • urine
  • solutes
  • capillary wall
  • tubule
  • filtrate
  • glomerulus (1st)

Question 26

Question
Tubular re-absorption: Re-absorption is the return of water and solutes to the blood following filtration. The filtrate flows through the proximal convoluted tubules, loop of Henle, distal convoluted tubules and then to the collecting ducts. As the filtrate moves through the nephron, much of it is reabsorbed from the nephron to the blood stream via processes such as diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport, symport and osmosis.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 27

Question
Tubular secretion: Tubular secretion is when substances are secreted into the filtrate from the blood. Tubular secretion can be active or passive. A good example of tubular secretion is H+ ions, and this plays an important role in the regulation of the pH of the blood.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 28

Question
Tubular secretion: Tubular secretion is when substances are [blank_start]secreted[blank_end] into the filtrate from the [blank_start]blood[blank_end]. Tubular [blank_start]secretion[blank_end] can be [blank_start]active[blank_end] or passive. A good example of tubular secretion is H+ ions, and this plays an important role in the regulation of the [blank_start]pH[blank_end] of the blood.
Answer
  • secreted
  • blood
  • secretion
  • active
  • pH

Question 29

Question
Sodium-potassium exchange pump is
Answer
  • Active
  • Passive

Question 30

Question
Which molecule is moving with Na+ during co-transport (piggy backing)?
Answer
  • Glucose
  • Fructose

Question 31

Question
Anti Port - Which molecule is moving with Na+?
Answer
  • Ca2+
  • K+

Question 32

Question
Anti-port: Is Na+ and Ca2+ moving in the same direction or in opposite directions?
Answer
  • Opposite
  • Same direction

Question 33

Question
Facilitated diffusion is the mechanism by which glucose moves out of the nephron cell in to the blood
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 34

Question
Describe the structure and function of the special carrier molecule
Answer
  • Protein imbedded in cell membrane with a central channel. It helps move molecules across the cell membrane.
  • Lipid imbedded in cell membrane with a central channel. It helps move molecules across the cell membrane.

Question 35

Question
Name two molecules that move across the cell membrane via facilitated diffusion?
Answer
  • Fructose
  • Amino acids
  • Glucose

Question 36

Question
Is facilitated diffusion moving the molecule up or down its concentration gradient?
Answer
  • Down its concentration gradient. From high to low concentration.
  • Up its concentration gradient. From low to high concentration.

Question 37

Question
Is facilitated diffusion an active or passive process?
Answer
  • Diffusion is passive – it does not require energy (ATP).
  • Diffusion is active – it does require energy (ATP).

Question 38

Question
Is glucose moving from the filtrate to the blood, or from the blood to the filtrate?
Answer
  • Glucose is moving from the filtrate to the blood. It is being reabsorbed into the body where it will be used by cells to make ATP
  • Glucose is moving from the blood to the filtrate. It is being reabsorbed into the body where it will be used by cells to make ATP

Question 39

Question
The glomerular capsule is also known as the Bowman’s capsule
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 40

Question
The renal corpuscle consists of the glomerulus (a bed of capillaries) and the glomerular capsule.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 41

Question
Renal corpuscle The renal corpuscle consists of the [blank_start]glomerulus[blank_end] (a bed of capillaries) and the glomerular [blank_start]capsule[blank_end]. The glomerular capsule is also known as the [blank_start]Bowman’s capsule[blank_end]. Blood enters the [blank_start]renal corpuscle[blank_end] (the first part of the nephron) via the [blank_start]afferent[blank_end] arteriole. When the blood passes through the bed of capillaries in the renal corpuscle, fluid leaves the [blank_start]capillary[blank_end] and becomes [blank_start]filtrate[blank_end]. This is the first stage of [blank_start]urine[blank_end] formation. This filtrate then enters into the glomerular capsule and flows directly into the [blank_start]proximal convoluted tubule[blank_end], where tubular [blank_start]reabsorption[blank_end] begins. Blood that comes in via the afferent arteriole leaves via the efferent arteriole to return to the body’s [blank_start]blood[blank_end] [blank_start]supply[blank_end]
Answer
  • glomerulus
  • capsule
  • Bowman’s capsule
  • renal corpuscle
  • afferent
  • filtrate
  • capillary
  • urine
  • proximal convoluted tubule
  • reabsorption
  • supply
  • blood

Question 42

Question
[blank_start]Fenestrae of capillaries[blank_end] - Holes in the endothelial cells of the glomerular capillaries [blank_start]Basement membrane[blank_end] - Found in between the endothelial cells and the podocytes [blank_start]Filtration slits[blank_end] - Spaces between the podocyte cell processes
Answer
  • Fenestrae of capillaries
  • Basement membrane
  • Filtration slits

Question 43

Question
Fenestrae of capillaries - Window-like holes in the endothelial cells of the glomerular capillaries
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 44

Question
• The nephron higher in the cortex is called a [blank_start]cortical nephron[blank_end]. • The nephron that is lower in the cortex with a long Loop of Henle extending deep into the medulla is a [blank_start]juxtamedullary nephron (juxta = near)[blank_end].
Answer
  • cortical nephron
  • juxtamedullary nephron (juxta = near)

Question 45

Question
[blank_start]Proximal convoluted tubule[blank_end] : Main area for reabsorption of water (80%) 100% reabsorption of amino acids and sugars [blank_start]Distal convoluted tubule[blank_end] : Controlled secretion of wastes, toxin, excess ions. Alters concentration of urine by varying water reabsorption [blank_start]Loop of Henle[blank_end] : Reabsorbs ions and water.
Answer
  • Proximal convoluted tubule
  • Distal convoluted tubule
  • Loop of Henle

Question 46

Question
The distal convoluted tubule is the last segment of the nephron. What is the name of the segment following the distal convoluted tubule?
Answer
  • Collecting duct
  • Advancing duct

Question 47

Question
The bladder is a hollow structure that stores urine. What volume of urine do you think the bladder usually holds?
Answer
  • up to 1 L
  • up to 1.5 L

Question 48

Question
Carrier molecules are usually proteins bound to a non-protein group
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 49

Question
In the cell, examples of molecules that must use facilitated diffusion to move in and out of the cell membrane are glucose, sodium ions, and potassium ions. They pass using carrier proteins through the cell membrane without energy along the concentration gradient.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 50

Question
Facilitated diffusion is a passive process
Answer
  • True
  • False
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