General Pathoanatomy Final MCQs (111-200)- 3rd Year- PMU

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General Pathoanatomy Final MCQs (111-200)- 3rd Year- PMU

Resource summary

Question 1

Question
What is pathology?
Answer
  • the science that studies the changes at cellular, tissue and organ level caused by diseases
  • the science that studies the body structure and morphology
  • medical discipline which aims to find the cause of death when a crime is suspected
  • medical discipline which provides the morphological diagnosis for the clinical practice

Question 2

Question
Define the main branches of pathology
Answer
  • general pathology
  • clinical pathology
  • systemic pathology
  • experimental pathology

Question 3

Question
Mark the correct statements.
Answer
  • "clinical pathology" builds up a theoretical idea of the pathological process
  • "general pathology" studies the specific morphological changes in organs and systems caused by a particular disease
  • 'experimental pathology" researches the diseases using experimental animals and follows up the morphological changes caused by their treatment.
  • a and b statements are correct in reverse manner

Question 4

Question
What are the possible outcomes of a disease.
Answer
  • recovery
  • to become chronic
  • death
  • all of the above

Question 5

Question
Which of the following isn't a sign of death?
Answer
  • livores
  • rigor mortis
  • decay
  • calor

Question 6

Question
Mark the correct statement(s)
Answer
  • Algor mortis is stiffness of muscles after death
  • Rigor mortis is drying of the body after death
  • Livores are a violet-colored skin areas which develop after death
  • Decay is an early sign of death

Question 7

Question
Which are the specific methods of pathology?
Answer
  • autopsy
  • biopsy
  • clinical examination
  • clinical laboratory tests

Question 8

Question
Which of the followings are methods for taking biopsy?
Answer
  • excision
  • incision
  • surgical
  • all of the listed

Question 9

Question
Which are the purposes of pathological autopsy?
Answer
  • to accuse the clinicians of medical malpractice
  • to establish the cause of death and the definitive diagnosis
  • to help and educate clinicians and to improve their work
  • to help the relatives of the deceased to convict the doctors

Question 10

Question
Which are the conditions for an autopsy to be done?
Answer
  • death occurred in a hospital due to a disease
  • available medical history of the patient
  • presence of the treating doctor
  • all of the listed above

Question 11

Question
What are the characteristics of a frozen section?
Answer
  • urgent diagnosis given during an operation
  • the preparation of the tissue samples is done by a paraffin method
  • the preparation of the tissue samples is done on a freezing microtome
  • sometimes the diagnosis is not exactly clear because of the preparation method but information like "malignant tumor" "benign tumor" or "inflammation" is given to the surgeons to know how to proceed with the operation

Question 12

Question
Which fixative is most commonly used?
Answer
  • bouin solution
  • absolute alcohol
  • formalin 10%
  • salts of heavy metals

Question 13

Question
What fixative should be used for a liver biopsy from a baby with a suspected inherited metabolic disease?
Answer
  • Formalin 10%
  • 1.5-4% glutaraldehyde
  • Frozen section
  • Zenker's fixative

Question 14

Question
What is the role of immunohistochemical stains?
Answer
  • to give urgent answers about the diagnosis or at least orientation about the pathological process during surgery
  • to determine the histogenesis of the tumor especially in highly undifferentiated malignant tumors
  • to determine the proliferative activity and the hormonal receptors of the tumor that is highly important for the treatment
  • to help determine the cause of death

Question 15

Question
Cytokeratin, S-100 protein, Vimentin, Desmin, CD-20 are examples of:
Answer
  • special stains to prove different substances
  • immunohistochemical markers

Question 16

Question
In which cases a pathological autopsy is performed?
Answer
  • when there is suspicion for diagnostic or therapeutic malpractice
  • death of a person outside the hospital
  • when there is suspicion of violent death
  • death of a patient in the hospital and when the relatives don't ask the principal to cancel the autopsy

Question 17

Question
Which of the followings is not a part of performing an autopsy?
Answer
  • dissection of organs
  • opening the body
  • taking biopsy from organ changes
  • extraction of abdominal and thoracic organs

Question 18

Question
Size, shape, elasticity, consistency, color and cut surface are characteristics of:
Answer
  • microscopic examination of organs
  • gross examination of organs
  • ultramicroscopic examination of organs
  • none of the listed

Question 19

Question
Indicate correctly the name of the described test. The pericardial sac is cut in Y-like section and filled with water, after that, in the presence of a witness, the right ventricle is punctured with a knife.
Answer
  • test for thromboembolism
  • test for pneumothorax
  • test for air and gas embolism
  • test for fat embolism

Question 20

Question
Indicate correctly the name of the described test. The pulmonary artery is cut at the place of truncus pulmonalis. Tweezers are inserted and the content of the artery is taken out for examinationion.
Answer
  • test for pneumothorax
  • test for air and gas embolism
  • test for thromboembolism
  • test for fat embolism

Question 21

Question
Indicate correctly the name of the described test. A pocket between the skin and the ribs is formed and is filled with water. In the presence of a witness, the thorax is punctured with a thin knife in an intercostal space.
Answer
  • test for air and gas embolism
  • test for fat embolism
  • test for thromboembolism
  • test for pneumothorax

Question 22

Question
Where is the main accumulation of glycogen in patients with diabetes?
Answer
  • in epithelial cells of convoluted tubules and Henle's loop
  • in epithelial cells of gastrointestinal mucosa
  • in the nuclei and in the cytoplasm of the hepatocytes
  • endothelial cells of the vessels

Question 23

Question
Mark the correct statement(s) for Mallory bodies?
Answer
  • they are accumulations of glycogen in the cytoplasm of the hepatocytes
  • they are hyaline inclusions in the cytoplasm of the hepatocytes
  • they are caused by consumption of toxic mushrooms
  • they are seen in Wilson's disease, liver cancer, primary biliary cirrhosis but mainly in alcoholic disease

Question 24

Question
Mark the correct statement(s) for Von Gierke's disease?
Answer
  • it is a genetic autosome-recessive disease
  • another name is glycogenosis type Il
  • it affects mainly the heart leading to severe heart failure in infants
  • there is excessive storage of normal glycogen in the liver and kidneys

Question 25

Question
Mark the correct statement(s) for cellular edema
Answer
  • it is abnormal accumulation of water in the cytoplasm
  • it is reversible cellular injury
  • cells are small and shrunken
  • there are a few etiological factors that caused cellular edema

Question 26

Question
Abnormal intracellular accumulation of proteins can be seen in:
Answer
  • the epithelial cells of the proximal tubules in proteinuria
  • in the cardiomyocytes in heart infarction
  • in the plasma cells in chronic inflammatory diseases as Russel's bodies
  • in the cells of pancreatic islets in diabetes mellitus

Question 27

Question
The abnormal inclusions in the hepatocytes in alpha-I antitrypsin deficiency are composed of:
Answer
  • glycogen
  • lipids
  • bile
  • proteins

Question 28

Question
"Hyaline droplets" in the epithelial cells of renal tubules is another name for:
Answer
  • glycogen inclusions
  • protein inclusions
  • vacuolar degeneration
  • lipid inclusions

Question 29

Question
Vacuolar degeneration and hydropic degeneration are more severe stages of:
Answer
  • fatty degeneration
  • protein degeneration
  • cellular edema
  • glycogen accumulation

Question 30

Question
PAS reaction with PAS control is used to distinguish:
Answer
  • Cholesterol from other lipids
  • Glycogen from mucus
  • DNA from RNA
  • Denaturated intracellular proteins from accumulated extracellular proteins

Question 31

Question
PAS —control is done using:
Answer
  • sulfuric acid
  • hydrochloric acid
  • amylase
  • picric acid

Question 32

Question
What is fatty degeneration?
Answer
  • abnormal accumulation of lipids in parenchymal cells
  • abnormal accumulation of lipids in the specialized fatty cells
  • abnormal accumulation of lipids in the ECM of an organ
  • abnormal accumulation of cholesterol in the large and medium-sized vessels

Question 33

Question
What is lipomatosis?
Answer
  • abnormal accumulation of lipids in parenchymal cells
  • abnormal accumulation of lipids in the specialized fatty cells
  • abnormal accumulation of lipids in the cells of the interstitium of an organ
  • abnormal accumulation of cholesterol in the large and medium-sized vessels

Question 34

Question
What is obesity?
Answer
  • abnormal accumulation of lipids in parenchymal cells
  • abnormal accumulation of lipids in the specialized fatty cells
  • abnormal accumulation of lipids in the cells of the interstitium of an organ
  • abnormal accumulation of cholesterol in the large and medium-sized vessels

Question 35

Question
What is the relation between fatty degeneration of the liver and diabetes?
Answer
  • there is no relation between them
  • patients with diabetes have increased intake of lipids to provide more energy
  • the fatty liver in diabetes is caused by increased lipolysis and increased delivery of fatty acids in the liver
  • the fatty liver leads to diabetes mellitus

Question 36

Question
What is android type of obesity?
Answer
  • also called "male"or "apple" type, it is the accumulation of lipids in the fatty cells around the shoulders, thorax and waist
  • also called "female"or "pear"type, it is the accumulation of lipids in the fatty cells around the hips, tights and legs
  • generalized obesity predominantly on the face, shoulders and thorax
  • generalized obesity predominantly in the tights, hips and legs

Question 37

Question
What is gynoid type of obesity?
Answer
  • also called "male"or "apple" type, it is the accumulation of lipids in the fatty cells around the shoulders, thorax and waist
  • also called "female"or "pear"type, it is the accumulation of lipids in the fatty cells around the hips, tights and legs
  • generalized obesity predominantly on the face, shoulders and thorax
  • generalized obesity predominantly in the tights, hips and legs

Question 38

Question
What is upper type of obesity?
Answer
  • also called "male"or "apple" type, accumulation of lipids in the fatty cells around the shoulders, thorax and waist
  • also called "female"or "pear"type, it is the accumulation of lipids in the fatty cells around the hips, tights and legs
  • generalized obesity predominantly on the face, shoulders and thorax
  • generalized obesity predominantly in the tights, hips and legs

Question 39

Question
What is lower type of obesity?
Answer
  • also called "male"or "apple" type, it is the accumulation of lipids in the fatty cells around the shoulders, thorax and waist
  • also called "female"or "pear"type — accumulation of lipids in the fatty cells around the hips, tights and legs
  • generalized obesity predominantly on the face, shoulders and thorax
  • generalized obesity predominantly in the tights, hips and legs

Question 40

Question
Which type of obesity has worse prognosis?
Answer
  • gynoid type
  • male type
  • the obesity doesn't affect the patient's health
  • all of the obesity types have the same prognosis

Question 41

Question
In "tiger heart" the abnormal accumulation of lipids is:
Answer
  • in the cell of the heart's interstitium
  • in the cells around the pericardium
  • in the cardiomyocytes of the papillary muscles along the venules and the venous part of the capillaries
  • in the cardiomyocytes of the anterior wall of the left heart chamber

Question 42

Question
Which exogenous pigment could be accumulated in the eyes?
Answer
  • copper
  • lead
  • coal dust
  • none of the above

Question 43

Question
Which exogenous pigment could be deposited in the oral cavity?
Answer
  • coal dust
  • copper
  • lead
  • none of the above

Question 44

Question
Which exogenous pigment(s) could be deposited in the skin?
Answer
  • carotene
  • silver
  • tattoo ink
  • all of the above

Question 45

Question
Which exogenous pigments could be deposited in the liver?
Answer
  • copper
  • silver
  • tattoo ink
  • coal dust

Question 46

Question
Which exogenous pigment could be deposited in the kidney?
Answer
  • coal dust
  • copper
  • silver
  • all of the above

Question 47

Question
Which exogenous pigment could be deposited in the lungs and lymph nodes?
Answer
  • coal dust
  • carotene
  • tattoo ink
  • none of the above

Question 48

Question
Which exogenous pigment could be deposited in the brain?
Answer
  • coal dust
  • carotene
  • copper
  • tattoo ink

Question 49

Question
Examples for non-organic pigments are:
Answer
  • coal dust
  • lead
  • carotene
  • silver

Question 50

Question
Indicate the types of jaundice.
Answer
  • haemolytic/pre-hepatic
  • obstructive/ post-hepatic
  • hepatocellular/parenchymal
  • all of the above

Question 51

Question
Haemolytic jaundice is characterized by the following laboratory findings:
Answer
  • increased indirect bilirubin in the serum, hypercholic stools and increased urobilinogen in the urine
  • both types of bilirubin are increased in the serum, normal colour of the stools, both bilirubin and urobilinogen are increased in the urine
  • increased direct bilirubin in the serum, hypoholic or acholic stool, increased bilirubin in the urine
  • none of the above

Question 52

Question
Mechanical jaundice is characterized by the following laboratory findings:
Answer
  • increased indirect bilirubin in the serum, hypercholic stools and increased urobilinogen in the urine
  • both types of bilirubin are increased in the serum, normal colour of the stools, both bilirubin and urobilinogen are increased in the urine
  • increased direct bilirubin in the serum, hypocholic or acholic stools, increased bilirubin in the urine
  • none of the above

Question 53

Question
Parenchymal jaundice is characterized by the following laboratory findings:
Answer
  • inceased indirect bilirubin in the serum, hypercholic stools and increased urobilinogen in the urine
  • both types of bilirubin are increased in the serum, normal colour of the stools, both bilirubin and urobilinogen are increased in the urine
  • increased direct bilirubin in the serum, hypocholic or acholic stools, increased bilirubin in the urine
  • none of the above

Question 54

Question
Which of the following stains are used to prove hemosiderin?
Answer
  • Sudan Ill in orange colour
  • Congo-Rod in brick-red colour
  • Perls in blue-green colour
  • Van Gieson in red colour

Question 55

Question
What is the etiology of brown induration of the lungs?
Answer
  • chronic left sided heart failure'
  • chronic right sided heart failure
  • mitral valve stenosis
  • acute left sided heart failure

Question 56

Question
What is the common between fibrosis, sclerosis and cirrhosis?
Answer
  • the common is the increased development of connective tissue in the organ
  • the common is the lipid accumulation in the intetitium of the organ
  • the common is the fibrinoid degeneration of the organ
  • they are different processes and don't have anything common between them

Question 57

Question
Which of the following extracellular changes shows basophilia on H-E stain?
Answer
  • fibrinoid degeneration
  • hyalinosis
  • mucoid degeneration
  • amyloidosis

Question 58

Question
Which of the following changes are characterized by eosinophilia on H-E stain?
Answer
  • mucoid degeneration
  • vacuolar degeneration
  • fibrinoid necrosis
  • fibrinoid degeneration

Question 59

Question
Metachromasia can be seen in which of the following changes on ToluidinBlue stain?
Answer
  • fibrinoid degeneration
  • mucoid degeneration
  • fibrinoid necrosis
  • hyalinosis

Question 60

Question
Special stains for fibrin are also used in:
Answer
  • fibrinoid degeneration
  • fibrinoid necrosis
  • mucoid degeneration
  • amyoidosis

Question 61

Question
Infiltration of lymphocytes and plasma cells is typical for:
Answer
  • mucoid edema
  • fibrinoid necrosis
  • fibrinoid degeneration
  • none of the above

Question 62

Question
What is the clinical significance of hyalinosis of the heart arterioles?
Answer
  • it causes myocarditis
  • it causes rheumatic heart disease
  • it causes ishaemic heart disease
  • it cause subacute endocarditis

Question 63

Question
What is the clinical significance of hyalinosis of the pancreatic arteroles?
Answer
  • it can cause diabetes mellitus
  • it can cause pancreatic cancer
  • it can cause acute pancreatitis
  • hyalinosis in the pancreas is a physiological process related with ageing

Question 64

Question
What is the common between "glazed spleen" and corpus albicans ovarii?
Answer
  • the process in both is hyalinosis
  • the process in both is fibrosis
  • the process in both is fibrinoid degeneration
  • the process in both is amyloidosis

Question 65

Question
Which stain is used to prove rheumatism in acute stage in a heart valve?
Answer
  • Prussian Blue
  • Toluidin-Blue
  • Congo-Red
  • Perls

Question 66

Question
Mucoid swelling can be seen in:
Answer
  • Heart valves in rheumatism
  • Basedow's dermopathy
  • Myxedema
  • all of the listed above

Question 67

Question
Which are the types of fibrinoid?
Answer
  • fibrinoid related to immune complexes in autoimmune diseases
  • physiological fibrinoid degeneration with aging
  • fibrinoid caused by the influence of biological, chemical and physical factors
  • fibrinoid caused by fast plasmorrhagia in the vessel walls in malignant hypertention

Question 68

Question
The necrosis which develops at the base of an acute or chronic active ulcer in the stomach or duodenum is:
Answer
  • coagulative
  • caseous
  • fibrinoid
  • liquefactive

Question 69

Question
Which degeneration in the extracellular matrix is seen during the acute stages of autoimmune diseases?
Answer
  • hyaline
  • fibrinoid
  • amyloid
  • none of the above

Question 70

Question
Indicate the correct statement(s) for nephrosclerosis arteriolosclerotica:
Answer
  • it affects microscopically the afferent and efferent arterioles
  • it is a result of prolonged benign hypertention
  • it is a reversible process
  • the process is hyalinosis

Question 71

Question
What are the microscopic changes seen in the brain in benign long-term hypertention?
Answer
  • hyalinosis of the vessels' walls
  • edema around vessels
  • accumulation of lymphocytes and plasma cells in the soft brain membranes
  • developments of specific granulomas in the brain tissue

Question 72

Question
The gross description: thick, hard, glassy whitish depositions, non-digestable by enzymes, is indicative for
Answer
  • steatonecrosis
  • liquefactive necrosis
  • hyalinosis
  • fibrinoid deposition

Question 73

Question
Mark the correct statements for Corpus albicans ovarii (white bodies of the ovaries).
Answer
  • they are example of physiological hyalinosis
  • they are example for pathological hyalinosis after inflammatory processes in the ovaries
  • they are example for physiological accumulation of fibrinoid
  • they develop after the regression of corpus luteum

Question 74

Question
The following diseases are examples of amyloid depositions. Find the mistake!
Answer
  • rheumatoid arthritis — AA amyloid
  • multiple myeloma — AL amyloid
  • medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland — AA amyloid
  • Alzheimer's disease — A4 amyloid

Question 75

Question
'Sago spleen and lardaceous spleen' are:
Answer
  • gross appearance of the localized (sago-spleen)and generalized (lardaceous spleen) amyloidosis of the spleen
  • sago spleen is amyloidosis of the spleen, while lardaceous spleen is hyalinosis of the spleen
  • gross appearance of the spleen in Hodgkin's lymphoma depending on the severity of the process
  • in lardaceous spleen the amyloid is deposited in the white pulp only, while in sago spleen both white and red pulp have amyloid deposition

Question 76

Question
Systemic amyloidosis is proven by a biopsy from?
Answer
  • gingiva
  • heart
  • fat tissue from abdominal wall
  • ileum

Question 77

Question
What type of calcification develops in the complicated atherosclerotic plaques?
Answer
  • metastatic
  • dystrophic
  • metabolic
  • physiological

Question 78

Question
Which are the causes for hypocalcaemia?
Answer
  • hypoparathyroidism
  • hyperparathyroidism
  • intoxication with vit. D
  • senile osteoporosis

Question 79

Question
What kind of gout can develop in a patient with leucemia?
Answer
  • gout caused by excessive consumption of meat and meat products
  • genetic gout caused by error in the metabolism of uric acid
  • renal injury because kidneys cannot excrete the excessive amount of uric acid
  • patients with leucosis never develop gout

Question 80

Question
Which of the following microscopic descriptions most likely suggest kidney amyloidosis? The stain is H-E in all the described specimens.
Answer
  • highly enlarged glomeruli, the capillary tufts filled almost all of the capsular space, capillary lumens are obliterated; pink homogeous substance is deposited also in the mesangium, in the basement membranes of the tubules and in the walls of the blood vessels
  • afferent and efferent arterioles have homogenously thick walls stained in pink, some of the glomeruli look smaller, with totally effaced structure and homogenously pink in color, while others may look normal in size, or even with compensatory hypertrophy.
  • the interstitium shows chronic inflammatory reaction, the main change is seen in the kidney tubules which look dilated and filled with pinkish substance (these tubules look like thyroid follicles)
  • many glomeruli show crescent proliferations, encompassing 2/3 f the Bowman's space; the process ends with global sclerosis of the gomerulus

Question 81

Question
Which of the following stain(s) is used to prove amyloidosis?
Answer
  • Perls
  • Congo-Red
  • Van Gieson
  • Methyl violet

Question 82

Question
Mark the correct statement(s) for kidney alymoidosis
Answer
  • small, shrunken kidneys with granular surface and difficult decapsulation
  • enlarged pale kidneys with waxy texture
  • amyloidosis affects only one of the kidneys and doesn't lead to chronic renal failure
  • kidney amyloidosis is reversible after the treatment of the primary disease and has very good prognosis

Question 83

Question
Mark the terms which indicate amyloidosis of the spleen.
Answer
  • lardaceous spleen
  • glazed spleen
  • sago spleen
  • porphiric spleen

Question 84

Question
Granulomatous structures, consisting of uric acid crystals, lymphocytes, macrophages, fibroblasts and giant multinucleated cells type "foreign body" are characteristic for which disease?
Answer
  • tuberculosis
  • sarcoidosis
  • gout
  • brucellosis

Question 85

Question
Calcification of the aorta characterizes with:
Answer
  • hard, rigid wall of the aorta
  • soft, elastic wall of the aorta
  • can be complicated with mural thrombosis and aneurysm
  • is a result of metabolic calcification

Question 86

Question
Amyloidosis of the liver:
Answer
  • develops because of liver dysfunction and liver failure due to chronic liver disease
  • is characterized grossly with small, brown liver with decreased elasticity
  • can develop in chronic inflammatory diseases or in autoimmune diseases
  • is characterized grossly with enlarged, pale liver with waxy texture

Question 87

Question
Renal complications of gout include:
Answer
  • uric crystals nephrolithiasis
  • uric-acid infarction
  • urate nephropathy
  • all of the listed above

Question 88

Question
Indicate the correct statement(s) for necrosis.
Answer
  • It is a programmed cell death
  • It is provoked cell death
  • It affects single cells and the extracellular matrix is not involved in the process
  • there is a demarcation inflammation at the periphery of the affected area

Question 89

Question
Indicate the correct statement(s) for apoptosis.
Answer
  • it affects single cells and the extracellular matrix is not involved
  • there is demarcation inflammation at the periphery of the affected area
  • it ends with phagocytosis of the cellular fragments
  • it is always accompanied by inflammation at the periphery of the area

Question 90

Question
What is the difference between fibrinoid degeneration and fibrinoid necrosis?
Answer
  • fibrinoid degeneration is accumulation of fibrinoid in the extracellular space while fibrinoid necrosis includes not only fibrinoid degeneration but also death of cells and extracellular components in the area of fibrinoid degeneration
  • these isn't any difference, the two terms are synonyms
  • fibrinoid degeneration is a physiological process while fibrinoid necrosis is a pathological process
  • fibrinoid degeneration is accumulation of fibrin in the extracellular matrix while fibrinoid necrosis is necrosis of the fibrin in the extracellular matrix
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