Biopsychology- Quiz (A2)

Grace Fawcitt
Quiz by Grace Fawcitt, updated more than 1 year ago
Grace Fawcitt
Created by Grace Fawcitt about 3 years ago
1764
6

Description

AQA A Level Psychology: Biopsychology- This resource was created based on material in the textbook, and is only suitable for A Level students as it contains A Level content alongside the AS Level content.

Resource summary

Question 1

Question
The Nervous Systems [blank_start]Central Nervous System[blank_end]- made up of the brain and spinal cord. The spinal cord is responsible for reflex actions, while the brain is the centre of all conscious awareness. It has a very advanced cerebral cortex compared to animals. [blank_start]Peripheral Nervous System[blank_end]- made up of millions of neurons that transmit messages to and from the CNS. [blank_start]Autonomic Nervous System[blank_end]- a subsystem of the PNS, this nervous system controls bodily functions, like breathing and heart rate [blank_start]Somatic Nervous System[blank_end]- a subsystem of the PNS, this nervous system controls voluntary movement. [blank_start]Sympathetic Nervous System[blank_end]- a branch of the ANS which is involved in the fight or flight response, and makes the body physiologically aroused [blank_start]Parasympathetic Nervous System[blank_end]- a branch of the ANS which is involved in the fight or flight response, and returns the body to its resting state.
Answer
  • Central Nervous System
  • Peripheral Nervous System
  • Autonomic Nervous System
  • Somatic Nervous System
  • Sympathetic Nervous System
  • Parasympathetic Nervous System

Question 2

Question
What is a gland?
Answer
  • An organ/biological structure that synthesises hormones
  • An organ/biological structure that synthesises neurotransmitters
  • A chemical substance in the bloodstream that controls bodily functions
  • A section of the brain that deals with decision making and planning

Question 3

Question
How does the endocrine system differ from the nervous systems?
Answer
  • It is quicker but less powerful
  • It is quicker and more powerful
  • It is slower but less powerfull
  • It is slower and more powerful

Question 4

Question
Which gland is considered the 'master gland', as it controls all other glands?
Answer
  • Pineal gland
  • Pituitary gland
  • Thyroid gland
  • Hypothalamus

Question 5

Question
Label the process of the fight or flight response (starting at 1, ending at 5) with the correct letter.
Answer
  • C
  • B
  • E
  • D
  • A

Question 6

Question
Label the neuron below.
Answer
  • Axon terminals
  • Axon
  • Myelin sheath
  • Nucleus
  • Cell body
  • Dendrites

Question 7

Question
Sensory neurons: have [blank_start]long[blank_end] dendrites and [blank_start]short[blank_end] axons Motor neurons: have [blank_start]short[blank_end] dendrites and [blank_start]long[blank_end] axons Relay neurons: have [blank_start]short[blank_end] dendrites and [blank_start]short[blank_end] axons
Answer
  • long
  • short
  • short
  • long
  • short
  • long
  • long
  • short
  • short
  • long
  • short
  • long

Question 8

Question
When in a resting state, the neuron is [blank_start]negatively[blank_end] charged. Upon activation by a stimulus, it temporarily becomes [blank_start]positively[blank_end] charged, creating an action potential.
Answer
  • negatively
  • positively
  • positively
  • negatively

Question 9

Question
Label the diagram of synaptic transmission.
Answer
  • Electrical impulse
  • Axon
  • Pre-synaptic neuron
  • Vesicles
  • Synapse
  • Neurotransmitter
  • Receptor sites
  • Post-synaptic neuron

Question 10

Question
Messages between neurons are transmitted [blank_start]chemically[blank_end] while messages within neurons are transmitted [blank_start]electrically[blank_end].
Answer
  • chemically
  • electrically

Question 11

Question
Which of the following is an excitatory neurotransmitter?
Answer
  • Serotonin
  • Adrenaline
  • GABA
  • Glycine

Question 12

Question
Which of the following is an inhibitory neurotransmitter?
Answer
  • Serotonin
  • Adrenaline
  • Glutamate
  • Histamine

Question 13

Question
What is the theory that opposes localisation of function?
Answer
  • Holism
  • Humanism
  • Determinism

Question 14

Question
Label the lobes and areas of the brain.
Answer
  • The frontal lobe
  • Broca's area
  • The temporal lobe
  • Wernicke's area
  • The occipital lobe
  • The parietal lobe
  • The somatosensory area
  • The motor cortex
  • The cerebellum

Question 15

Question
The functions of the lobes/areas [blank_start]Frontal lobe[blank_end]: controls planning and decision making. Damage leads to a lack of restraint and rash actions [blank_start]Motor area[blank_end]: controls voluntary movement. Damage leads to loss of fine motor skills [blank_start]Somatosensory area[blank_end]: receives sensory information from the skin. Damage leads to an inability to identify by touch [blank_start]Occipital lobe[blank_end]: the visual area in which each eye sends information to the opposite side of the brain. Damage leads to blindness in the opposite eye [blank_start]Temporal lobe[blank_end]: the auditory area in which speech-based information is analysed. It is also in charge of facial recognition. Damage leads to partial hearing loss [blank_start]Wernicke's area[blank_end]: controls understanding speech. Damage leads to Wernicke's aphasia (fluent but nonsensical speech) [blank_start]Broca's area[blank_end]: controls speech production. Damage leads to Broca's aphasia (non-fluent and labourious speech)
Answer
  • Frontal lobe
  • Motor area
  • Somatosensory area
  • Occipital lobe
  • Temporal lobe
  • Wernicke's area
  • Broca's area

Question 16

Question
There are three types of evidence which support localisation of function: Brain scan evidence: [blank_start]Peterson[blank_end] did brain scans and found Wernicke's area was active during listening tasks (understanding speech), while Broca's area was active for reading aloud tasks (speech production). [blank_start]Tulving[blank_end] found that episodic and semantic memories were stored on different sides of the pre-frontal lobe. This type of evidence is scientific and objective. Neurosurgical evidence: [blank_start]Dougherty[blank_end] suggested that lesioning the cingulate gyrus helps treat OCD Case study evidence: [blank_start]Phineas Gage[blank_end] had a pole through his head which damaged the frontal lobe, and he became rash and lacked restraint. This shows the function of the frontal lobe
Answer
  • Peterson
  • Wernicke
  • Tulving
  • Baddeley
  • Tulving
  • Peterson
  • Wernicke
  • Baddeley
  • Dougherty
  • Baddeley
  • Tulving
  • Wernicke
  • Phineas Gage
  • Clive Wearing
  • KF
  • Little Albert

Question 17

Question
There are two main disadvantages of the localisation of function theory: [blank_start]Lashley[blank_end]'s research: he removed parts of the cortex in rats and found that it didn't matter which part was removed, the effect on learning was the same. This supports the holistic view. [blank_start]Plasticity[blank_end]: when damaged, the brain can reorganise itself to recover the lost function. This suggests that all parts of the brain are involved in functions, thus supporting the holistic theory.
Answer
  • Lashley
  • Tulving
  • Peterson
  • Dougherty
  • Plasticity
  • Biological rhythms
  • Split-brain research

Question 18

Question
Plasticity During infancy, a child undergoes [blank_start]rapid[blank_end] brain development- synaptic connections peak at [blank_start]15,000[blank_end] at [blank_start]2-3[blank_end] years old ([blank_start]Gopnick[blank_end]) As we age, rarely used connections are deleted while frequently used ones are strengthened. This is known as [blank_start]synaptic pruning[blank_end].
Answer
  • rapid
  • gradual
  • minimal
  • moderate
  • 15,000
  • 1,000
  • 1 million
  • 1,500
  • 2-3
  • 10
  • 6
  • Gopnick
  • Tulving
  • Baddeley
  • Peterson
  • synaptic pruning
  • synaptic hedging
  • Axon sprouting

Question 19

Question
Which researcher investigated plasticity with relation to taxi drivers having more grey matter in the posterior hippocampus (linked to spatial memory) than a control group?
Answer
  • Maguire
  • Tulving
  • Draganski
  • Dougherty

Question 20

Question
Which researcher investigated plasticity with relation to medical students who had learning-induced changes in their posterior hippocampus and the parietal cortex 3 months after their exam?
Answer
  • Draganski
  • Lashley
  • Maguire
  • Tulving

Question 21

Question
There are 3 structural changes that occur in the brain during functional recovery. Choose the 3 changes below.
Answer
  • Axon sprouting
  • Dendrite sprouting
  • Synaptic pruning
  • Reformation of blood vessels
  • Recruitment of homologous areas
  • Recruitment of heterologous areas
  • Reduction of blood vessels

Question 22

Question
What is meant by 'homologous areas' with regards to functional recovery?
Answer
  • Areas of the brain in the opposite hemisphere that are similar to those areas damaged
  • Areas of the brain in the same hemisphere that are similar to those areas damaged
  • Areas of the brain in the opposite hemisphere that are different to those areas damaged
  • Areas of the brain in the same hemisphere that are different to those areas damaged

Question 23

Question
What is the practical application of research into plasticity (according to the AQA textbook)?
Answer
  • Contribution to neuro-rehabilitation such as movement therapy and electrical stimulation to counter deficits in cognitive/motor functioning
  • Treating OCD via lesioning the cingulate gyrus, as the function will transfer to a homologous area..
  • To act as a treatment for phantom limb syndrome
  • To be used in care homes for elderly people who suffer from dementia as a way of countering the effects of the illness

Question 24

Question
[blank_start]Hubel and Wiesel[blank_end] investigated functional recovery by sewing a [blank_start]kitten[blank_end]'s eye shut. They found that the area of the visual cortex without that eye continued to process information from the other eye.
Answer
  • Hubel and Wiesel
  • Dougherty
  • Maguire
  • Draganski
  • kitten
  • puppy
  • rhesus monkey
  • toddler

Question 25

Question
What are two examples of negative plasticity?
Answer
  • Phantom limb syndrome
  • PTSD
  • Dementia
  • Paralysis

Question 26

Question
'Plasticity reduces with age before eventually stopping' Is this statement true or false?
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 27

Question
'The idea that the two hemispheres of the brain are functionally different and that certain mental processes are primarily processed by one side of the brain' Which of the following does this describe?
Answer
  • Plasticity
  • Holism
  • Localisation of function
  • Hemispheric lateralisation

Question 28

Question
The right hemisphere includes functions such as [blank_start]art awareness[blank_end], [blank_start]creativity[blank_end], [blank_start]holistic thoughts[blank_end], and [blank_start]left[blank_end] hand controls. The left hemisphere includes functions such as [blank_start]analytic thought[blank_end], [blank_start]language[blank_end], [blank_start]science/maths[blank_end], and [blank_start]right[blank_end] hand controls.
Answer
  • art awareness
  • analytic thought
  • creativity
  • langauge
  • holistic thoughts
  • science/maths
  • left
  • right
  • analytic thought
  • art awareness
  • language
  • creativity
  • science/maths
  • holistic thoughts
  • right
  • left

Question 29

Question
Which researcher investigated split-brain research?
Answer
  • Sperry
  • Siffre
  • Tulving
  • Doughtery
  • Draganski

Question 30

Question
What kind of operation had the participants of Sperry's split-brain study undergone?
Answer
  • A comissurotomy- removal of the corpus callosum
  • A pre-frontal lobotomy- cutting the connections to and from the prefrontal cortex
  • Lesioning of the cingulate gyrus

Question 31

Question
Which disorder did the participants in Sperry's split-brain research suffer from?
Answer
  • Epilepsy
  • Diabetes
  • OCD
  • Amnesia
  • Dementia

Question 32

Question
What is the role of the corpus callosum with relation to split-brain research?
Answer
  • Connection between the two hemispheres
  • The area of the brain associated with facial recognition
  • The area of the brain associated with identification by touch
  • Connection between the suprachiasmatic nucleus and the two hemispheres

Question 33

Question
In the diagram below, you will see examples of the split-brain research procedures. Considering the functions of the left hemisphere (right visual field) and right hemisphere (left visual field), label the procedures.
Answer
  • Describe what you see
  • Recognition by touch
  • Simultaneous words
  • Matching faces

Question 34

Question
Name two advantages of Sperry's split-brain research
Answer
  • Good supporting evidence- his research produced impressive and sizeable evidence for hemispheric lateralisation
  • Good supporting evidence- his research produced impressive and sizeable evidence for functional recovery
  • Good methodology- used specialised and standardised procedures
  • Easy to generalise- a large sample size with diverse sample characteristics makes the theories easy to generalise
  • Comprehensive approach- it takes into account how the right hemisphere can still be associated with language, and therefore doesn't oversimplify

Question 35

Question
Name two disadvantages of Sperry's split-brain research
Answer
  • Insufficient evidence- there is very little evidence to support Sperry's theory
  • Poor methodology- lack of standardisation and control, with researcher bias playing a significant role in the findings
  • Difficult to generalise due to the abnormal sample characteristics- epilepsy
  • Gender bias- only studied women, and split brain research has showed notable differences in men in terms of hemispheric lateralisation
  • Oversimplification- the right hemisphere does still play a role in language, not just the left hemisphere.

Question 36

Question
In the spaces provided, label the scanning technique described.
Answer
  • ERPs
  • Post-mortem examinations
  • fMRIs
  • EEGs

Question 37

Question
There are points to consider when evaluating scanning techniques. This includes: [blank_start]Cost[blank_end]- is it a technique that is expensive? [blank_start]Temporal resolution[blank_end]- is there a lag in the scanning, or is it instantaneous? [blank_start]Spatial resolution[blank_end]- is the picture clear? [blank_start]Ethical issues[blank_end]- people can't consent if they're dead [blank_start]Risks[blank_end]- does the technique use radiation or invasive methods? How much does it actually tell us?- fMRI is just blood flow, and post-mortems are affected by extraneous variables
Answer
  • Cost
  • Temporal resolution
  • Spatial resolution
  • Ethical issues
  • Risks
  • Temporal resolution
  • Spatial resolution
  • Ethical issues
  • Risks
  • Cost
  • Spatial resolution
  • Temporal resolution
  • Cost
  • Ethical issues
  • Risks
  • Ethical issues
  • Risks
  • Temporal resolution
  • Spatial resolution
  • Cost
  • Risks
  • Temporal resolution
  • Spatial resolution
  • Ethical issues
  • Cost

Question 38

Question
Biological Rhythms Circadian rhythms: [blank_start]every 24 hours[blank_end], such as the [blank_start]sleep/wake cycle[blank_end] Ultradian rhythms: [blank_start]more than once every 24 hours[blank_end], such as the [blank_start]sleep cycle[blank_end] Infradian rhythms: [blank_start]less than once every 24 hours[blank_end], such as the [blank_start]menstrual cycle[blank_end] Circannual rhythms: a type of infradian rhythm that is [blank_start]once every year[blank_end], such as [blank_start]seasonal affective disorder[blank_end]
Answer
  • every 24 hours
  • more than once every 24 hours
  • less than once every 24 hours
  • once every year
  • sleep cycle
  • menstrual cycle
  • seasonal affective disorder
  • sleep/wake cycle

Question 39

Question
Siffre spent 2 months in a cave to investigate how the sleep/wake cycle was influenced by endogenous pacemakers. How did his sleep/wake cycle change?
Answer
  • Changed to a 25 hour sleep/wake cycle
  • Changed to a 29 hour sleep/wake cycle
  • Changed to a 18 hour sleep/wake cycle
  • There was no change

Question 40

Question
[blank_start]Aschoff and Wever[blank_end] had participants spend a month in [blank_start]a WW2 bunker[blank_end] with no exogenous zeitgebers. The majority had a 24-25 hour sleep/wake cycle. [blank_start]Folkard[blank_end] had 12 volunteers live [blank_start]in a cave[blank_end] for 3 weeks with no light. Gradually, the clocks were sped up so a seemingly 24 hour day lasted only 22 hours. The majority maintained a 24-25 hour sleep/wake cycle. These studies suggest [blank_start]exogenous zeitgebers[blank_end] have little influence on our biological rhythms.
Answer
  • Aschoff and Wever
  • Folkard
  • in a cave
  • a WW2 bunker
  • exogenous zeitgebers
  • endogenous pacemakers

Question 41

Question
The main endogenous pacemaker for the sleep/wake cycle is the [blank_start]suprachiasmatic nucleus[blank_end], and the exogenous zeitgeber is [blank_start]daylight[blank_end].
Answer
  • suprachiasmatic nucleus
  • hippocampus
  • daylight
  • heat
  • daylight
  • heat
  • weather
  • sound

Question 42

Question
One advantage of research into circadian rhythms is the practical application. This includes [blank_start]shift work[blank_end]- well-lit rooms and regular breaks. This improves production and decreases risk of harm. [blank_start]Drug treatment[blank_end] can also be improved- drugs are taken [blank_start]at certain peak times[blank_end] to be most effective.
Answer
  • shift work
  • volnteering
  • part-time work
  • full-time work
  • Drug treatment
  • Cognitive therapy
  • Socio-psychological therapies
  • at certain peak times
  • in the morning
  • when needed

Question 43

Question
Research into circadian rhytms (the sleep/wake cycle) used small samples and case studies. Why is this an issue?
Answer
  • Difficult to generalise
  • Culture bound
  • Ethical issues- lack of informed consent

Question 44

Question
Why could we say that there was poor control in studies into the sleep/wake cycle?
Answer
  • They still used artificial light
  • When speeding up the clocks in Folkard's study, they used estimation rather than precision
  • There were places where the participants could still see natural light

Question 45

Question
How often does the menstrual cycle occur?
Answer
  • 28 days
  • Once a year
  • Once a day (if this happens to you, you might want to get it checked out...)
  • 14 days
  • A week

Question 46

Question
Which two hormones are involved in the menstrual cycle?
Answer
  • Oestrogen
  • Testosterone
  • Progesterone
  • Oxytocin
  • Insulin

Question 47

Question
The menstrual cycle 1. High levels of [blank_start]oestrogen[blank_end] cause the ovary to develop an egg 2. The egg is released 3. After [blank_start]ovulation[blank_end], [blank_start]progesterone[blank_end] thickens the lining of the womb. If an egg isn't fertilised, the womb lining is shed and leaves the body ([blank_start]menstrual flow[blank_end])
Answer
  • oestrogen
  • ovulation
  • menstrual flow
  • progesterone

Question 48

Question
Which researcher investigated the menstrual cycle?
Answer
  • McClintock
  • Folkard
  • Aschoff and Wever
  • Siffre
  • Sperry

Question 49

Question
McClintock studied women with irregular menstrual cycles. He took samples of pheromones from 9 women during their cycle, and wiped them on the upper lip of 20 other women. What percentage of the women experienced changes to their menstrual cycle which synced them to their pheromone donor?
Answer
  • 68%
  • 100%
  • None
  • 44%
  • 12%

Question 50

Question
What does McClintock's study of the menstrual cycle highlight the role of?
Answer
  • Endogenous pacemakers
  • Exogenous zeitgebers

Question 51

Question
When does Seasonal Affective Disorder affect sufferers of the disorder?
Answer
  • Mornings
  • Evenings
  • Winter
  • Summer
  • Autumn
  • Spring

Question 52

Question
Seasonal Affective Disorder Lowered exposure to sunlight in the [blank_start]winter[blank_end] leads to larger quantities of [blank_start]melatonin[blank_end] being produced. As a result, less [blank_start]serotonin[blank_end] is produced, hence the lowered mood.
Answer
  • winter
  • evening
  • summer
  • early morning
  • melatonin
  • serotonin

Question 53

Question
The sleep cycle is [blank_start]an ultradian[blank_end] rhythm; it involves 5 stages, and lasts [blank_start]90 minutes[blank_end]. Stage 1+2- light sleep, easy to wake. [blank_start]Alpha to theta waves[blank_end] Stage 3+4- deep sleep, difficult to wake. [blank_start]Delta waves[blank_end] Stage 5- REM sleep, the body is paralysed but the mind speeds up. [blank_start]Mixture of waves[blank_end]
Answer
  • an ultradian
  • a circadian
  • an infradian
  • 90 minutes
  • a day
  • an hour
  • Alpha to theta waves
  • Delta waves
  • Mixture of waves
  • Delta waves
  • Alpha to theta waves
  • Mixture of waves
  • Mixture of waves
  • Delta waves
  • Alpha to theta waves

Question 54

Question
Some psychologists suggest the menstrual synchrony has an evolutionary basis- menstruating together leads to falling pregnant around the same time, so the children could be cared for collectively. However, why may we actually question the validity of this statement?
Answer
  • There isn't enough evidence about the menstrual cycle
  • This would actually just create competition for the highest quality males in the group, so avoidance of synchrony would be better
  • The males would fight over the females

Question 55

Question
Factors such as diet, stress and exercise affect the menstrual cycle
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 56

Question
Dement and Kleitman carried out brain scans to study the sleep cycle. They would wake the participants up during different stages. At which stage would it be easiest to recall dreams?
Answer
  • Stage 1
  • Stage 5- REM sleep
  • Stage 4

Question 57

Question
What is the main advantage of research into SAD?
Answer
  • It leads to the development of treatments like photo-therapy
  • It means SAD can be predicted in future generations
  • It means people can take time off work for the disorder without a diagnosis

Question 58

Question
What the main endogenous pacemaker in humans?
Answer
  • The suprachiasmatic nucleus
  • Daylight
  • The liver
  • The peripheral oscillator

Question 59

Question
What does the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) lie above in the hypothalamus?
Answer
  • The optic chiasm
  • The parahippocampal gyrus
  • Wernicke's area
  • The cerebellum

Question 60

Question
DeCoursey destroyed the suprachiasmatic nucleus in 30 chipmunks. What effect did this have on their sleep/wake cycle?
Answer
  • None- the cycle remained 24 hours
  • It decreased to 16 hours
  • It disappeared entirely, so they stayed awake and were killed by predators
  • It increased until they essentially slept all day and night, so were killed by predators

Question 61

Question
Ralph transplanted the SCN cells of hamsters with 20-hour sleep/wake cycles to hamsters with regular 24- hour sleep/wake cycles. What effect did this have on the normal hamsters?
Answer
  • Their sleep/wake cycles changed to 20 hours
  • There was no significant change in their sleep/wake cycle
  • Their sleep/wake cycle disappeared entirely
  • The sleep/wake cycle changed to 45 hours

Question 62

Question
Which gland produces melatonin?
Answer
  • The pineal gland
  • The pituitary gland
  • The thyroid gland
  • The adrenal gland

Question 63

Question
What is the name given to the other endogenous pacemakers found in the body other than the SCN, such as the liver and spleen?
Answer
  • Peripheral oscillators
  • Peripheral circulators
  • Peripheral nervous system

Question 64

Question
Campbell and Murphy conducted a study in which a light pad was shone on the backs' of participants' knees at regular intervals during sleep. What did they find?
Answer
  • The menstrual cycle became more frequent
  • The sleep/wake cycle deviated by 3 hours
  • The sleep cycle became 70 minutes, rather than 90

Question 65

Question
Other than light, what is another key exogenous zeitgeber?
Answer
  • The suprachiasmatic nucleus
  • Genetic makeup
  • Social cues

Question 66

Question
What is one disadvantage of Campbell and Murphy's study into exogenous zeitgebers (shining light pads on the back of knees)?
Answer
  • May have had partial exposure to light in their eyes
  • The influence of demand characteristics was ignored
  • All participants had had the backs of their knees checked for sensitivity beforehand, so may not be able to generalise to the wider population

Question 67

Question
Why might we say that the influence of exogenous zeitgebers is overstated?
Answer
  • The blind still have 24-hour sleep/wake cycles despite social cues, and people in the Arctic still have 24-hour sleep/wake cycles despite near-constant sunlight
  • Endogenous pacemakers and exogenous zeitgebers can't function simultaneously, and there is stronger evidence for endogenous pacemakers
  • There is no human evidence for exogenous zeitgebers, only animal studies
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