Week 9 - Cardiovascular

Jessica Bulley
Quiz by Jessica Bulley, updated more than 1 year ago
Jessica Bulley
Created by Jessica Bulley over 1 year ago
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Week 9 - Cardiovascular
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Question 1

Question
The [blank_start]right side of the heart[blank_end] pumps blood to the lungs (the [blank_start]Pulmonary circulation[blank_end]) where gas exchange occurs, ie. the blood collect oxygen from the airsacs and excess carbon dioxide diffuses into the airsacs for [blank_start]exhalation[blank_end]. The [blank_start]left side of the heart[blank_end] pumps blood into the [blank_start]systemic circulation[blank_end], which supplies the rest of the body. Here, [blank_start]tissue wastes[blank_end] are passed into the blood for excretion, and body cells extract nutrients and oxygen.
Answer
  • right side of the heart
  • Pulmonary circulation
  • exhalation
  • left side of the heart
  • systemic circulation
  • tissue wastes

Question 2

Question
The right side of the heart pumps blood to the lungs (the Pulmonary circulation) where gas exchange occurs, ie. the blood collect oxygen from the airsacs and excess carbon dioxide diffuses into the airsacs for exhalation. The left side of the heart pumps blood into the systemic circulation, which supplies the rest of the body. Here, tissue wastes are passed into the blood for excretion, and body cells extract nutrients and oxygen.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 3

Question
The left side of the heart pumps blood to the lungs (the Pulmonary circulation) where gas exchange occurs, ie. the blood collect oxygen from the airsacs and excess carbon dioxide diffuses into the airsacs for exhalation.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 4

Question
Should the supply of oxygen and nutrients to body cells become inadequate ....
Answer
  • tissue damage occurs and cell death may follow.
  • the mitochondria will regenerate and supply additional energy.

Question 5

Question
Arteries and Arteriorioles transport blood away from the heart. Their walls consist of three layers of tissue - an outer layer of fibrous tissue, middle layer of smooth muscle and elastic tissue and an inner lining called endothelium.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 6

Question
Arteries have thicker walls than veins to withstand the high pressure of arterial blood.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 7

Question
The smallest arterioles break up into a number of minute vessels called...
Answer
  • Capillaries
  • Veins
  • Venules

Question 8

Question
Capillary walls consist of a single layer of endothelial cells sitting on a very thin basement membrane.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 9

Question
Capillary walls consist of a single layer of fibrous tissue sitting on a very thin basement membrane.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 10

Question
The capillary bed is the site of exchange of substances between the blood and the tissue fluid, which bathes the body cells and, with the exception of those on the skin surface and in the cornea of the eye, every body cell lies close to a capillary.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 11

Question
In certain places, including the Liver and bone marrow, the capillaries are significantly wider and leakier than normal. These are called Sinusoids and because their walls are incomplete and their lumen is much larger than usual, blood flows through them more slowly under less pressure and can come directly into contact with the cells outside the sinusoid wall. This allows must faster exchange of substances between the blood and the tissues.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 12

Question
Capillary refill - when the skin is pressed firmly with a finger, which turns white because the blood in the capillaries under the finger has been squeezed out. A prolonged capillary refill time can suggest poor perfusion or dehydration.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 13

Question
Veins return blood at [blank_start]low[blank_end] pressure to the heart. The walls of the veins are [blank_start]thinner[blank_end] than arteries but have the same three layers of [blank_start]tissue[blank_end]. They are thinner because there is less [blank_start]muscle and elastic tissue[blank_end] in the [blank_start]tunica media[blank_end] as veins carry blood at a lower pressure than [blank_start]arteries[blank_end].
Answer
  • low
  • thinner
  • tissue
  • muscle and elastic tissue
  • tunica media
  • arteries

Question 14

Question
Some veins possess valves, which prevent backflow of blood, ensuring that it flows towards the heart.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 15

Question
[blank_start]Valves[blank_end] are abundant in the veins of the limbs, especially the [blank_start]lower limbs[blank_end] where blood must travel a considerable distance against [blank_start]gravity[blank_end] when the individual is [blank_start]standing[blank_end].
Answer
  • Valves
  • lower limbs
  • gravity
  • standing

Question 16

Question
Vascular capacitance refers to degree of active constriction of vessels (mainly veins) which affects return of blood to the heart and thus cardiac output.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 17

Question
Veins are called [blank_start]capacitance vessels[blank_end] because they are distensible, and therefore have the capacity to hold a [blank_start]large proportion[blank_end] of the body's blood. At any one time, about [blank_start]two-thirds[blank_end] of the body's blood is in the venous system. This allows the vascular system to absorb sudden changes in blood [blank_start]volume[blank_end].
Answer
  • capacitance vessels
  • large proportion
  • two-thirds
  • volume

Question 18

Question
At any one time, about one-third of the body's blood is in the venous system. This allows the vascular system to absorb sudden changes in blood volume.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 19

Question
Thin-walled blood vessels receive oxygen and nutrients via....
Answer
  • diffusion from the blood passing through them
  • osmosis of the plasma

Question 20

Question
The smooth muscle of the tunica media of veins and arteries is supplied by nerves of the autonomic nervous system. These nerves arise from the ....
Answer
  • Medulla Oblongata and they change the diameter of blood vessels controlling the volume of blood they contain.
  • Hypothalamus and they change the diameter of blood vessels controlling the volume of blood they contain.

Question 21

Question
Blood vessel diameter is regulated by the smooth muscle of the tunica media, which is supplied by sympathetic nerves of the autonomic nervous system.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 22

Question
Constant adjustment of blood vessel diameter helps to regulate peripheral resistance of systemic blood pressure.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 23

Question
Oxygen is carried from the lungs to the tissues in combination with ....
Answer
  • haemoglobin as oxyhaemoglobin.
  • plasma through diffusion.

Question 24

Question
Blood transports carbon dioxide to the lungs for excretion by three different mechanisms:
Answer
  • dissolved in the water of the blood plasma - 7%
  • in chemical combination with sodium in the form of sodium bicarbonate - 70%
  • remainder in combination with haemoglobin - 23%
  • dissolved in the peripheral blood in nutrients - 7%

Question 25

Question
The [blank_start]nutrients[blank_end] including glucose, amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins and mineral salts required by all body cells are transported round the body in the [blank_start]blood plasma[blank_end]. They [blank_start]diffuse[blank_end] through the [blank_start]semi-permeable[blank_end] capillary walls in the tissues. Water exchanges [blank_start]freely[blank_end] between the plasma and tissue fluid by osmosis.
Answer
  • nutrients
  • blood plasma
  • diffuse
  • semi-permeable
  • freely

Question 26

Question
The two main forces determining overall fluid movement across the capillary wall are the [blank_start]hydrostatic pressure[blank_end] (blood pressure), which tends to push fluid [blank_start]out[blank_end] of the blood stream, and the [blank_start]osmotic pressure[blank_end] of the blood, which tends to [blank_start]pull it[blank_end] back in, and is due mainly to the prescence of plasma proteins, especially albumin.
Answer
  • hydrostatic pressure
  • out
  • osmotic pressure
  • pull it

Question 27

Question
The [blank_start]Heart[blank_end] lies in the [blank_start]thoracic[blank_end] cavity in the [blank_start]mediastinum[blank_end] (the space between the lungs). It lies [blank_start]obliquely[blank_end], a little more to the [blank_start]left[blank_end] than the [blank_start]right[blank_end], and presents a base [blank_start]above[blank_end], and an apex [blank_start]below[blank_end].
Answer
  • Heart
  • thoracic
  • mediastinum
  • obliquely
  • left
  • right
  • above
  • below

Question 28

Question
The heart wall is composed of three layers of tissue -
Answer
  • pericardium, myocardium and endocardium
  • pericardium, capillaries and endocardium

Question 29

Question
The [blank_start]Pericardium[blank_end] is the [blank_start]outermost[blank_end] layer and is made up of [blank_start]two[blank_end] sacs. The outer sac (the [blank_start]fibrous[blank_end] pericardium) consists of [blank_start]fibrous tissue[blank_end] and the inner (the [blank_start]serous[blank_end] pericardium) of a continuous double layer of [blank_start]serous membrane[blank_end].
Answer
  • Pericardium
  • outermost
  • two
  • fibrous
  • fibrous tissue
  • serous
  • serous membrane

Question 30

Question
The Myocardium is composed of specialised cardiac muscle found only in the heart. It is striated, like skeletal muscle, but it is not under voluntary control.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 31

Question
Endocardium lines the [blank_start]chambers and valves[blank_end] of the heart. It is a thin, smooth [blank_start]membrane[blank_end] to ensure [blank_start]smooth flow[blank_end] of blood through the heart. It consists of [blank_start]endothelial cells[blank_end] and it is continuous with the endothelium lining the [blank_start]blood vessels[blank_end].
Answer
  • chambers and valves
  • membrane
  • smooth flow
  • endothelial cells
  • blood vessels

Question 32

Question
The heart is divided into a right and left side by the septum, a partition consisting of myocardium covered by endocardium.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 33

Question
Each side of the heart is divided by an atrioventricular valve into the upper atrium and the ventricle below.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 34

Question
Each side of the heart is divided by an [blank_start]atrioventricular valve[blank_end] into the upper [blank_start]atrium[blank_end] and the [blank_start]ventricle[blank_end] below. The right atrioventricular valve is called the [blank_start]tricuspid valve[blank_end], and the left atrioventricular valve is called the [blank_start]mitral valve[blank_end].
Answer
  • atrioventricular valve
  • atrium
  • tricuspid valve
  • mitral valve
  • ventricle

Question 35

Question
Each side of the heart is divided by an atrioventricular valve into the upper atrium and the ventricle below. The right atrioventricular valve is called the tricuspid valve, and the left atrioventricular valve is called the mitral valve.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 36

Question
The valves between the atria and ventricles open and close passively according to changes in pressure in the chambers. They open when the pressure in the atria is greater than that in the ventricles.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 37

Question
The valves between the atria and ventricles open and close [blank_start]passively[blank_end] according to changes in pressure in the [blank_start]chambers[blank_end]. They open when the pressure in the atria is [blank_start]greater[blank_end] than that in the ventricles.
Answer
  • passively
  • chambers
  • greater

Question 38

Question
The two largest veins of the body, the superior and inferior vena cava, empty their contents into the right atrium.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 39

Question
Blood passes through the [blank_start]Right Atrioventricular valve[blank_end] into the [blank_start]Right Ventricle[blank_end], and from there is pumped into the [blank_start]Pulmonary Artery[blank_end]. The opening of the [blank_start]Pulmonary[blank_end] Artery is guarded by the [blank_start]Pulmonary Valve[blank_end], which prevents the [blank_start]backflow[blank_end] of blood into the right ventricle when the ventricular muscle [blank_start]relaxes[blank_end], After leaving the heart, the pulmonary artery divides into left and right pulmonary artieries, which carry the [blank_start]venous blood[blank_end] to the lungs where exchanges of gases take place: [blank_start]carbon dioxide[blank_end] is excreted and [blank_start]oxygen[blank_end] is absorbed.
Answer
  • Right Atrioventricular valve
  • carbon dioxide
  • oxygen
  • Right Ventricle
  • Pulmonary Artery
  • Pulmonary
  • Pulmonary Valve
  • backflow
  • relaxes
  • venous blood

Question 40

Question
The vagus nerve supplies mainly the SA and AV nodes and atrial muscle.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 41

Question
[blank_start]Sympathetic[blank_end] nerves supply the SA and AV [blank_start]nodes[blank_end] and the [blank_start]myocardium[blank_end] of atria and ventricles, and stimulation increases the [blank_start]rate and force[blank_end] of the heartbeat.
Answer
  • Sympathetic
  • nodes
  • myocardium
  • rate and force

Question 42

Question
At rest, the healthy adult heart is likely to beat at a rate of
Answer
  • 60-80 beats per minute
  • 40-80 beats per minute

Question 43

Question
Stages of the cardiac cycle - 1. [blank_start]Atrial Systole[blank_end] - contraction of the atria 2. [blank_start]Ventricular systole[blank_end] - contraction of the ventricles 3. [blank_start]Complete cardiac diastole[blank_end] - relaxation of the atria and ventricles
Answer
  • Atrial Systole
  • Ventricular systole
  • Complete cardiac diastole

Question 44

Question
A faster heart rate is called [blank_start]Tachycardia[blank_end] A slower heart rate is [blank_start]Bradycardia[blank_end]
Answer
  • Tachycardia
  • Bradycardia

Question 45

Question
The cardiac output is the amount of blood ejected from each ventricle every minute.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 46

Question
The [blank_start]cardiac output[blank_end] is the amount of blood ejected from each ventricle every minute. The amount expelled by each contraction of each ventricle is the [blank_start]stroke volume[blank_end].
Answer
  • cardiac output
  • stroke volume

Question 47

Question
[blank_start]Cardiac input[blank_end] = [blank_start]Stroke Volume[blank_end] x Heart Rate
Answer
  • Cardiac input
  • Stroke Volume

Question 48

Question
The stroke volume is determined by the volume of blood in the ventricles immediately before they contract.
Answer
  • True
  • False
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