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Portal hypertension is defined by a portal pressure higher than
5 mm Hg
10 mm Hg
15 mm Hg
20 mm Hg
25 mm Hg
Which collateral network is clinically the most important when we discuss development of portosystemic collateralization due to portal hypertension?
the recanalized umbilical vein from the left portal vein to the epigastric venous system (caput medusae)
retroperitoneal collateral vessels
collateral network through the coronary and short gastric veins to the azygos vein
the hemorrhoidal venous plexus
the anatomic and physiologic (e.g. capillarization of hepatic sinusoids) intrahepatic shunts
Which of these conditions accounts for approximately 50% of cases of portal hypertension in children?
Portal vein thrombosis
Alcohol cirrhosis, the most common cause of portal hypertension, usually causes increased resistance to portal flow at
the presinusoidal and sinusoidal levels
the sinusoidal and postsinusoidal levels
only the presinusoidal level
only the postsinusoidal level
all three levels
Which of these conditions can cause posthepatic portal hypertension?
portal vein thrombosis
none of the above
What is the most serious and life-threatening complication of portal hypertension?
A patient with liver cirrhosis and diagnosed esophageal varices is admitted to the hospital with low haemoglobin level and hematemesis. You already ensured adequate access (two large-bore intravenous lines), fluid infusion, type and crossmatch of blood, and judicious blood and products transfusion. How do you proceed?
prepare the patient for operation - total or selective shunt
prepare the patient for liver transplantation
prepare the patient for TIPS (transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt)
prepare the patient for endoscopic treatment (e.q., sclerosis or ligation)
perform a balloon tamponade with Sengstaken-Blakemore tube
Which is the most frequent complication in patients with portal hypertension who underwent non-selective shunt operation?
rebleeding from esophageal varices
Which is the most frequently used selective shunt?
left gastric-venacaval shunt
the distal splenorenal shunt
the end-to-side portacaval shunt
side-to-side portacaval shunt
none of the above
In addition to endoscopic treatment in cases of bleeding from esophageal varices we can add pharmacotherapy for better results. What medications do we use?