Portal Hypertension- Surgical Diseases 4th Year- PMU

Med Student
Quiz by Med Student , updated more than 1 year ago
Med Student
Created by Med Student about 2 years ago
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Description

Portal Hypertension- Surgical Diseases 4th Year- PMU

Resource summary

Question 1

Question
If you want Flashcards go to https://quizlet.com/_6qwiqw
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 2

Question
Portal hypertension is defined by a portal pressure higher than
Answer
  • 5 mm Hg
  • 10 mm Hg
  • 15 mm Hg
  • 20 mm Hg
  • 25 mm Hg

Question 3

Question
Which collateral network is clinically the most important when we discuss development of portosystemic collateralization due to portal hypertension?
Answer
  • the recanalized umbilical vein from the left portal vein to the epigastric venous system (caput medusae)
  • retroperitoneal collateral vessels
  • collateral network through the coronary and short gastric veins to the azygos vein
  • the hemorrhoidal venous plexus
  • the anatomic and physiologic (e.g. capillarization of hepatic sinusoids) intrahepatic shunts

Question 4

Question
Which of these conditions accounts for approximately 50% of cases of portal hypertension in children?
Answer
  • Portal vein thrombosis
  • Schistosomiasis
  • Alcoholic cirrhosis
  • Budd-Chiari syndrome
  • Constrictive pericarditis

Question 5

Question
Alcohol cirrhosis, the most common cause of portal hypertension, usually causes increased resistance to portal flow at
Answer
  • the presinusoidal and sinusoidal levels
  • the sinusoidal and postsinusoidal levels
  • only the presinusoidal level
  • only the postsinusoidal level
  • all three levels

Question 6

Question
Which of these conditions can cause posthepatic portal hypertension?
Answer
  • portal vein thrombosis
  • alcoholic cirrhosis
  • schistosomiasis
  • heart failure
  • none of the above

Question 7

Question
What is the most serious and life-threatening complication of portal hypertension?
Answer
  • ascites
  • hepatic encephalopathy
  • gastrointestinal bleeding
  • thrombocytopenia
  • anemia

Question 8

Question
A patient with liver cirrhosis and diagnosed esophageal varices is admitted to the hospital with low haemoglobin level and hematemesis. You already ensured adequate access (two large-bore intravenous lines), fluid infusion, type and crossmatch of blood, and judicious blood and products transfusion. How do you proceed?
Answer
  • prepare the patient for operation - total or selective shunt
  • prepare the patient for liver transplantation
  • prepare the patient for TIPS (transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt)
  • prepare the patient for endoscopic treatment (e.q., sclerosis or ligation)
  • perform a balloon tamponade with Sengstaken-Blakemore tube

Question 9

Question
Which is the most frequent complication in patients with portal hypertension who underwent non-selective shunt operation?
Answer
  • leukopenia
  • thrombocytopenia
  • ascites
  • rebleeding from esophageal varices
  • postoperative encephalopathy

Question 10

Question
Which is the most frequently used selective shunt?
Answer
  • left gastric-venacaval shunt
  • the distal splenorenal shunt
  • the end-to-side portacaval shunt
  • side-to-side portacaval shunt
  • none of the above

Question 11

Question
In addition to endoscopic treatment in cases of bleeding from esophageal varices we can add pharmacotherapy for better results. What medications do we use?
Answer
  • somatostatin
  • vasopressin
  • antibiotics
  • beta-blockers
  • all of the above
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