Chapter 3 - part 1: The Anatomy of the Nervous System

Vincent Voltaire
Quiz by Vincent Voltaire, updated more than 1 year ago
Vincent Voltaire
Created by Vincent Voltaire over 1 year ago
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Description

Psychology Quiz on Chapter 3 - part 1: The Anatomy of the Nervous System, created by Vincent Voltaire on 02/07/2020.

Resource summary

Question 1

Question
Which cells in the nervous system do most of the work of receiving, integrating, and transmitting information?
Answer
  • neurons
  • glial cells
  • axons
  • dendrites

Question 2

Question
Which of the following is the most accurate description of the structure and function of all neurons in your central nervous system?
Answer
  • All neurons contain a cell body and an axon, and may have other structures.
  • All neurons receive information via one or more dendrites and send information via one or more axons.
  • All neurons synapse onto another neuron in order to transmit an electrical signal.
  • All neurons receive and send information.

Question 3

Question
Which of the following is NOT one of the main functions of neurons?
Answer
  • integrating information
  • generating information
  • transmitting information
  • receiving information

Question 4

Question
What are three basic components of most neurons?
Answer
  • vesicles, terminal buttons, synapses
  • myelin, nodes, axon terminals
  • cell body, axon, dendrites
  • hindbrain, midbrain, forebrain

Question 5

Question
Which neuronal structures are analogous to branches on a tree?
Answer
  • dendrites
  • axons
  • nuclei
  • cell bodies

Question 6

Question
On a typical neuron, which structure receives neurochemical information, and which structure sends neurochemical information to other neurons?
Answer
  • Dendrites receive; axons send.
  • Axons send; synapses receive.
  • Dendrites receive; synapses send.
  • Axons receive; dendrites send.

Question 7

Question
In computers, the keyboard is the component of the computer that receives information. What would the keyboard be equivalent to, in comparing a computer to a neuron?
Answer
  • axon
  • soma
  • dendrite
  • terminal button

Question 8

Question
Emma has a disorder that includes degeneration of myelin sheaths in her nervous system. Which of the following disorders does Emma most likely have?
Answer
  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • multiple sclerosis
  • Broca’s aphasia
  • Parkinson’s disease

Question 9

Question
Which of the following is associated with the fastest neural impulses?
Answer
  • unmyelinated dendrites
  • myelinated axons
  • shorter axons
  • multiple dendrites

Question 10

Question
When you want to print something from a computer, a cable carries this signal from the computer to the printer. In comparing a computer and printer to two neurons, what is the neuronal equivalent to the cable?
Answer
  • synapse
  • soma
  • terminal button
  • axon

Question 11

Question
When you are printing something from your computer, your cable must be securely connected to the printer or else the signal won’t get through. If you compared a computer and printer to two neurons, what is the neuronal equivalent of the connection between the cable and the printer?
Answer
  • synapse
  • soma
  • terminal button
  • axon

Question 12

Question
Which part of the neuron secretes neurotransmitters?
Answer
  • neuromodulators
  • dendrites
  • myelin sheaths
  • terminal buttons

Question 13

Question
Which of the following is the correct sequence of structures through which information flows in a neuron?
Answer
  • dendrites to axon to soma
  • axon to glia to dendrites
  • glia to dendrites to axon
  • dendrites to soma to axon

Question 14

Question
What are the cells that provide structural support and insulation for neurons?
Answer
  • synapses
  • sheaths
  • glia
  • soma

Question 15

Question
What is the primary role of glial cells?
Answer
  • They form the primary components of the spinal cord.
  • They provide support for neurons.
  • They release neurotransmitters.
  • They release neuromodulators.

Question 16

Question
What would happen if you were to lose all of your glial cells?
Answer
  • There would be no change in functioning, because neurons are the cells that are important for transmission of information within the nervous system.
  • One hemisphere could not send information to the other hemisphere.
  • Your neurons would no longer have a normal chemical environment, and there would be problems with efficient neurotransmission.
  • You would no longer be able to send neurotransmitters from one cell to another.

Question 17

Question
Which of the following is a characteristic of both sodium and potassium ions?
Answer
  • They carry a negative charge.
  • They are concentrated inside the neuron’s cell body.
  • They carry a positive charge.
  • They are capable of changing their potentials.

Question 18

Question
What do we call the tiny electrical charge that exists when a neuron is neither receiving nor sending information?
Answer
  • resting potential
  • action potential
  • post-synaptic potential
  • inhibitory potential

Question 19

Question
When a neuron is neither receiving nor sending, what is the approximate voltage of the electrical charge that exists between the inside and the outside of a neuron?
Answer
  • –700 millivolts
  • –70 millivolts
  • +70 millivolts
  • +700 millivolts

Question 20

Question
Bradley is deeply relaxed and many of his muscles are not moving at all. What does this suggest about many of Bradley’s motor neurons?
Answer
  • They have a voltage of +70 millivolts.
  • They have a voltage of –70 millivolts.
  • They are in a relative refractory period.
  • They are in an absolute refractory period.

Question 21

Question
When the sodium channels of a neuron open, allowing sodium ions to flow inside, which of the following is most likely to happen next?
Answer
  • a resting potential
  • an action potential
  • a refractory period
  • reuptake

Question 22

Question
What is an action potential?
Answer
  • an electrical signal that travels along the axon of a neuron
  • the small gap that exists between adjacent neurons
  • the tiny electrical charge that exists when a neuron is neither receiving nor sending information
  • the release of neurotransmitters

Question 23

Question
Tracey became dehydrated during a recent illness, and the levels of sodium in her body were significantly reduced. What would we expect to occur if enough sodium was lost?
Answer
  • Her nervous system would become highly activated, and action potentials would be generated continuously.
  • More neurotransmitters would be produced in her terminal buttons.
  • Fewer action potentials would occur in her nervous system.
  • Glial cells would start to degenerate and die.

Question 24

Question
A neuron just sent a neural impulse. It will be one to two milliseconds before another neural impulse can be generated. What do we call this brief time increment, when another neural impulse cannot occur?
Answer
  • resting potential
  • absolute refractory period
  • postsynaptic discharge
  • all-or-none period

Question 25

Question
What is the term for the minimum length of time between action potentials?
Answer
  • relative threshold period
  • transduction interval
  • absolute refractory period
  • synaptic interval

Question 26

Question
Which of the following is known about action potentials?
Answer
  • They travel more slowly if the incoming stimulation is less intense.
  • They are stronger when the incoming stimulation is more intense.
  • They are generated in an all-or-none fashion.
  • They are seldom strong enough to reach the terminal buttons.

Question 27

Question
What is the typical speed of an action potential?
Answer
  • at least 600 kilometres/hour
  • up to 300 kilometres/hour
  • approximately the speed of light (300,000 kilometres/second)
  • approximately the speed of sound (1236 kilometres/hour)

Question 28

Question
Sara is holding Scott’s hand during a scary movie. Suddenly she squeezes his hand very hard. When she does this, what will the nerves in Scott’s hand do?
Answer
  • release more GABA
  • send larger action potentials to his central nervous system
  • enter an absolute refractory period
  • start to fire at a faster rate

Question 29

Question
Fiona puts her hands into a bucket of lukewarm water; Luke puts his hands into a bucket of ice-cold water. What should we predict about each of their action potentials?
Answer
  • Only Fiona will experience enough stimulation to trigger an action potential.
  • Luke will have inhibitory action potentials.
  • Their action potentials will differ in rate, due to differences in the intensity of the stimuli.
  • Their action potentials will differ in size, due to differences in the intensity of the stimuli.

Question 30

Question
Peggy smells a very strong odour; Harry smells an odour that is barely detectable. Based on what is known about neural transmission, what should we predict about each of their action potentials?
Answer
  • They will be the same size but at different rates.
  • Peggy’s will be excitatory, and Harry’s will be inhibitory.
  • They will be weaker in Harry’s system because the stimulus is less intense.
  • They will be distinguished by the amount of inhibition they exert on synapses.

Question 31

Question
What do we call the space between a terminal button and a dendrite?
Answer
  • the transmission gap
  • the midsynaptic potential range
  • the synaptic cleft
  • the neuromodulator

Question 32

Question
Where are neurotransmitters stored?
Answer
  • in the dendrites
  • in the mitochondria
  • in the axon
  • in the synaptic vesicles

Question 33

Question
What do synaptic vesicles do?
Answer
  • They fuse with the postsynaptic cell.
  • They store neurotransmitters.
  • They block receptors.
  • They manufacture myelin.

Question 34

Question
What happens when a neurotransmitter is released from a presynaptic neuron, but it does not fit into a suitable receptor channel on the postsynaptic neuron?
Answer
  • The firing potential of the postsynaptic neuron will not be affected.
  • An inhibitory postsynaptic potential will be generated.
  • A graded potential will be generated.
  • The presynaptic neuron will be inhibited.

Question 35

Question
What is a good analogy for the way in which a neurotransmitter binds to receptor sites?
Answer
  • the lowering of a drawbridge
  • a key fitting in a lock
  • the pulling of a gun trigger
  • the opening and closing of a window

Question 36

Question
What type of electric potential increases the likelihood that the postsynaptic neuron will fire?
Answer
  • all-or-none potential
  • excitatory postsynaptic potential
  • inhibitory postsynaptic potential
  • a resting potential

Question 37

Question
The voltage at a receptor site has just changed from –70 millivolts to –75 millivolts. What caused the change?
Answer
  • excitatory postsynaptic potential
  • influx of potassium ions
  • influx of sodium ions
  • inhibitory postsynaptic potential

Question 38

Question
The voltage at a receptor site has just changed from –70 millivolts to –67 millivolts. What will this lead to?
Answer
  • an absolute refractory period
  • increased likelihood of an action potential
  • decreased likelihood of an action potential
  • a relative refractory period

Question 39

Question
What do we call the process of absorption of neurotransmitters into the presynaptic neuron?
Answer
  • reuptake
  • neurotransmission
  • graded potential
  • inhibition

Question 40

Question
Which of the following is the correct sequence of steps through which neurotransmitters progress during synaptic transmission?
Answer
  • binding, synthesis, release, inactivation, reuptake
  • synthesis, release, binding, inactivation, reuptake
  • synthesis, binding, release, reuptake, inactivation
  • release, synthesis, binding, reuptake, inactivation

Question 41

Question
If a brain has several synapses that are not particularly active, those synapses may be eliminated. What is this process called?
Answer
  • synaptic pruning
  • inhibition
  • natural selection
  • long-term potentiation

Question 42

Question
At what age do humans tend to have the largest number of synapses?
Answer
  • at birth
  • at 1 year
  • at puberty
  • after physical growth has ended in early adulthood

Question 43

Question
According to the Hebbian Learning Rule, if an axon of Cell A is near enough to repeatedly stimulate Cell B (causing it to fire often), then what will happen to Cell B?
Answer
  • Cell B will eventually stop responding to Cell A.
  • Cell B will merge with Cell A.
  • Cell B will be pruned because it is redundant with Cell A.
  • Cell B will become more likely to fire in response to signals from Cell A.

Question 44

Question
Which of the following neurotransmitters is primarily involved in the activation of motor neurons controlling skeletal muscles?
Answer
  • GABA
  • acetylcholine
  • serotonin
  • norepinephrine

Question 45

Question
Jeremy is sitting quietly when the voluntary muscles in his left leg begin to twitch. Which neurotransmitter is likely being released?
Answer
  • serotonin
  • norepinephrine
  • acetylcholine
  • GABA

Question 46

Question
When your text states that nicotine functions as an acetylcholine agonist, what does that mean?
Answer
  • It interacts with acetylcholine to produce a novel effect.
  • It occupies acetylcholine receptor sites, thus blocking the action of the neurotransmitter.
  • It stimulates some acetylcholine synapses.
  • It inhibits some acetylcholine release.

Question 47

Question
What does an agonist do?
Answer
  • It extends the absolute refractory period of neural transmission.
  • It blocks the action of neurotransmitters.
  • It mimics the action of a neurotransmitter.
  • It prevents reuptake of neurotransmitters.

Question 48

Question
Curare blocks the action of acetylcholine by occupying its receptor sites. In this context, what is curare?
Answer
  • a neurotransmitter
  • an agonist
  • a neuromodulator
  • an antagonist

Question 49

Question
Dr. Jacoby has just discovered a new drug named Z2W that is an antagonist to acetylcholine. What are some likely side effects of this new drug?
Answer
  • hallucinations and disrupted sleep patterns
  • general stimulation within the body and an increase in heart rate
  • sleepiness and loss of interest in activities
  • motor and memory problems

Question 50

Question
Dr. Ferracane has just discovered a new drug named GL8 that produces side effects such as paralysis and memory loss. Based on this information, how might this drug act on the nervous system?
Answer
  • as an agonist for GABA
  • as an antagonist for GABA
  • as an antagonist for acetylcholine
  • as an agonist for acetylcholine

Question 51

Question
What seems to be a primary cause of Parkinson’s disease?
Answer
  • degeneration of neurons that use dopamine as a neurotransmitter
  • degeneration of myelin sheaths
  • antagonistic effects on acetylcholine receptors
  • damage to glial cells

Question 52

Question
Garrett has a chronic disease that is slowly destroying the cells that produce serotonin in his brain. Which of the following will likely happen to Garrett as his disease progresses?
Answer
  • His memory will gradually worsen.
  • He will start to show signs of Parkinson’s disease.
  • His sleep and mood will be disrupted.
  • He will begin to experience symptoms of schizophrenia.

Question 53

Question
Which of the following disorders is associated with reduced activity at norepinephrine and serotonin receptors?
Answer
  • depression
  • schizophrenia
  • Parkinson’s disease
  • multiple sclerosis

Question 54

Question
Julia is currently in the midst of a major depression. Which of the following patterns of neurotransmitter activity is most likely to be associated with her symptoms?
Answer
  • reduced levels of GABA
  • increased activity at serotonin synapses
  • increased levels of dopamine
  • reduced activity at norepinephrine synapses

Question 55

Question
Stuart abuses a drug that is a dopamine agonist. Which of the following is Stuart most likely to experience when he is high?
Answer
  • deep relaxation
  • hallucinations
  • temporary paralysis
  • excessive anxiety

Question 56

Question
Caitlin has taken a drug that has reduced the levels of GABA in her nervous system. What side effect is Caitlin likely to experience?
Answer
  • motor tics and other involuntary motor movements
  • increased levels of anxiety
  • depression
  • hallucinations

Question 57

Question
Dr. Athorp has just discovered a new drug named P3X that is an agonist for GABA. What effects will this drug likely have?
Answer
  • hallucinations and disrupted sleep patterns
  • general stimulation within the body and an increase in heart rate
  • a reduction in pain and a sense of euphoria
  • anxiety reduction and general relaxation

Question 58

Question
Which of the following neurotransmitters always has inhibitory effects?
Answer
  • GABA
  • glutamate
  • acetylcholine
  • norepinephrine

Question 59

Question
Which of the following neurotransmitters has effects on learning and memory, and on long-term potentiation?
Answer
  • GABA
  • glutamate
  • acetylcholine
  • norepinephrine

Question 60

Question
Opiate drugs bind onto the same receptor sites as the body’s own endorphins. What effect, then, do opiate drugs have?
Answer
  • They increase anxiety and agitation.
  • They inhibit visual sensations.
  • They produce insomnia.
  • They relieve pain.

Question 61

Question
Which of the following neurotransmitters is most similar to the drug heroin?
Answer
  • acetylcholine
  • dopamine
  • endorphins
  • serotonin

Question 62

Question
If you were making a new drug to treat pain, which type of neurotransmitter would you attempt to mimic?
Answer
  • dopamine
  • monoamines
  • acetylcholine
  • endorphins
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