Chapter 4 - part 2: Our Sense of Sight: The Visual System

Vincent Voltaire
Quiz by Vincent Voltaire, updated more than 1 year ago
Vincent Voltaire
Created by Vincent Voltaire over 1 year ago
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1

Description

Psychology Quiz on Chapter 4 - part 2: Our Sense of Sight: The Visual System , created by Vincent Voltaire on 02/09/2020.

Resource summary

Question 1

Question
What aspect of perception is affected by the wavelength of light?
Answer
  • saturation
  • light purity
  • brightness
  • colour

Question 2

Question
What affects our perception of the brightness of a colour?
Answer
  • saturation of light waves
  • purity of light waves
  • amplitude of light waves
  • wavelength of light waves

Question 3

Question
Jose is wearing a blue shirt, and Evan is wearing a red shirt. What is the difference between the two shirts, in terms of light waves?
Answer
  • Jose’s reflects higher amplitude light waves than Evan’s.
  • Jose’s reflects shorter light waves than Evan’s.
  • Jose’s reflects longer light waves than Evan’s.
  • Jose’s reflects lower amplitude light waves than Evan’s.

Question 4

Question
What aspect of visual perception is responsive to differences in the amplitude of light waves?
Answer
  • colour
  • purity
  • saturation
  • brightness

Question 5

Question
What aspect of visual perception will change if you change the purity of the light waves?
Answer
  • saturation
  • colour constancies
  • hue
  • brightness

Question 6

Question
If your lens is very round, which of the following will you see best?
Answer
  • close objects
  • distant objects
  • moving objects
  • brightly coloured objects

Question 7

Question
As people age, the lens of the eye loses its ability to accommodate, and it tends to remain flat instead of becoming fat and round. What does this suggest about the effects of aging on vision?
Answer
  • We become less likely to detect differences in light purity.
  • We become more likely to detect differences in brightness and hue.
  • We lose the ability to focus on objects that are close.
  • We lose the ability to focus on objects in the distance.

Question 8

Question
What is the structure that controls the size of the pupil?
Answer
  • lens
  • vitreous humour
  • cornea
  • iris

Question 9

Question
What changes in size, in order to regulate the amount of light that enters the eye?
Answer
  • cornea
  • pupil
  • retina
  • lens

Question 10

Question
What happens to the pupil of the eye in bright sunlight?
Answer
  • It constricts.
  • It flattens.
  • It dilates.
  • It closes.

Question 11

Question
Isaiah is having his eyes checked. The doctor has put drops in Isaiah’s eyes that will cause the pupils to open wide. What will happen to Isaiah’s vision as the drops begin to work?
Answer
  • His vision will start to become quite blurry.
  • He will lose some of his colour vision.
  • His vision will become extremely sharp and clear.
  • Colours will appear to be “super” saturated.

Question 12

Question
What happens to the pupil of the eye in dim light?
Answer
  • It is dilated, producing a sharper image.
  • It is dilated, producing an image that is not as sharp.
  • It is constricted, producing an image that is not as sharp.
  • It is constricted, producing a sharper image.

Question 13

Question
Which of the following processes compensates for sensory adaptation?
Answer
  • transduction
  • saccades
  • dilation
  • lens accommodation

Question 14

Question
Where is the optic disk?
Answer
  • where the visual fields from both eyes merge
  • where the optic nerve exits the retina
  • immediately in front of the lens
  • where most of the rod and cones are located

Question 15

Question
What is the blind spot in the eye?
Answer
  • where the optic nerve exits the back of the eye
  • the point at which ganglion cells synapse with bipolar cells
  • the area where only cones are present
  • where photoreceptor cells do not “bleach”

Question 16

Question
Petra has vision problems because of a syndrome that causes her cones to be faulty. Her rods function normally. Which of the following aspects of Petra’s vision is likely to be deficient?
Answer
  • colour vision
  • depth perception
  • vision in low illumination
  • peripheral vision

Question 17

Question
Imagine that biologists have discovered an animal that has eyes very similar to human eyes, but that the only receptor cells in the retina are rods; there are no cones. What would you expect about this animal’s vision, based on what is known about human vision?
Answer
  • It would be able to detect extremely fine details.
  • It would have poor peripheral vision.
  • It would have poor vision in low illumination.
  • It would have no colour vision.

Question 18

Question
Imagine that biologists have discovered an animal that has eyes very similar to human eyes, but that the only receptor cells in the retina are cones; there are no rods. What would you expect about this animal’s vision, based on what is known about human vision?
Answer
  • It would have poor peripheral vision.
  • It would have poor visual acuity.
  • It would have excellent vision in dim light.
  • It could not see in colour.

Question 19

Question
Devin has contracted a very rare eye disease that has caused damage to his rods, but for the most part, his cones have not been affected. Which of the following aspects of Devin’s vision is likely to be deficient?
Answer
  • vision in bright illumination
  • peripheral vision
  • colour vision
  • detecting differences in wavelengths of light

Question 20

Question
Which of the following techniques would allow you to maximize visual acuity at night?
Answer
  • Close one eye.
  • Blink your eyes several times to hasten dark adaptation.
  • Look slightly above or below the object you wish to see.
  • Look directly at the object you wish to see.

Question 21

Question
Fifteen minutes after Zigfried left the brightly lit hallway and entered the dark passageway, what would you expect about his dark adaptation?
Answer
  • It is still taking place in both his rods and his cones.
  • It is complete in his rods, but still taking place in his cones.
  • It is complete in both his rods and cones.
  • It is complete in his cones, but still taking place in his rods.

Question 22

Question
What does the receptive field of a visual cell refer to?
Answer
  • the portion of visual cortex that receives information from that cell
  • a cell’s degree of sensitivity or receptivity
  • a range of wavelengths of light the cell reacts to
  • an area of rods and cones that cause the visual cell to fire

Question 23

Question
When light hits the centre-surround of a receptive field, which of the following will be stimulated?
Answer
  • the inhibitory synapse to the visual cell
  • the excitatory synapse to the visual cell
  • the optic nerve
  • the optic disc

Question 24

Question
When light hits the centre of a receptive field, but does not hit the centre-surround, which of the following is most likely to occur?
Answer
  • The associated visual cell will fire.
  • The associated visual cell will be inhibited.
  • The nearby visual cells will be stimulated.
  • The optic nerve will be inhibited.

Question 25

Question
When light hits the centre-surround of a receptive field, but does not hit the centre, which of the following is most likely to occur?
Answer
  • The associated visual cell will fire.
  • The associated visual cell will be inhibited.
  • The nearby visual cells will be inhibited.
  • The optic nerve will fire.

Question 26

Question
What is the optic chiasm?
Answer
  • the portion of the lateral geniculate nucleus that is responsible for coordination of sensory input
  • the point at which the optic nerves cross over one another before projecting to the occipital lobe
  • the portion of the visual cortex responsible for feature detection
  • the gap between the right occipital lobe and the left occipital lobe

Question 27

Question
If the pathway through your superior colliculus were not functioning correctly, what would be difficult for you to do?
Answer
  • perceiving depth
  • integrating visual and auditory information
  • distinguishing colours
  • detecting differences in texture

Question 28

Question
In which of the following lobes would you find the primary visual cortex?
Answer
  • frontal
  • occipital
  • temporal
  • parietal

Question 29

Question
Through which of the following brain areas do visual signals travel just before reaching primary visual cortex?
Answer
  • frontal lobes
  • optic disc
  • thalamus
  • superior colliculus

Question 30

Question
Which of the following depicts an accurate pathway for neural signals leaving the retina?
Answer
  • optic chiasm, optic nerve, occipital lobe, lateral geniculate nucleus
  • optic nerve, optic chiasm, thalamus, primary visual cortex
  • optic nerve, lateral geniculate nucleus, optic chiasm, occipital lobe
  • optic chiasm, medial geniculate nucleus, primary visual cortex, thalamus

Question 31

Question
What are the cells in the visual cortex that respond selectively to specific details of complex stimuli?
Answer
  • ventral cells
  • centre-surround detectors
  • feature detectors
  • ganglion cells

Question 32

Question
What are the cells in the visual cortex that respond to a line of the correct width, oriented at the correct angle, and located in the correct position in its receptive field?
Answer
  • ganglion cells
  • binary cells
  • complex cells
  • simple cells

Question 33

Question
What do complex cells in the visual cortex respond to?
Answer
  • specific widths and orientation of lines anywhere in their receptive field
  • different colours in a specific spectrum
  • figure-ground disparity in the visual field
  • discrepancies between the centre and centre-surround in a receptive field

Question 34

Question
A microelectrode is recording the activity from a single cell in the visual cortex of a cat. The cell begins to fire rapidly when a line is presented at a 45-degree angle directly in front of the cat, but stops firing when the line is shifted to a position that is off to the left. What type of cell is likely being monitored in this case?
Answer
  • complex cell
  • simple cell
  • cell in the superior colliculus
  • ganglion cell

Question 35

Question
A microelectrode is recording the activity from a single cell in the visual cortex of a cat. The cell begins to fire rapidly when a vertical line sweeps across the visual field to the left, but stops firing when the same line sweeps back across the visual field to the right. What type of cell is likely being monitored in this case?
Answer
  • cell in the parvocellular channel
  • simple cell
  • ganglion cell
  • complex cell

Question 36

Question
After visual input has been processed in the primary visual cortex, signals are processed further along a number of pathways. Which of the following types of visual information would be processed in the temporal lobe, along the ventral stream?
Answer
  • movement
  • brightness and contours
  • faces
  • complexity and contrast

Question 37

Question
After visual input has been processed in the primary visual cortex, signals are processed further along a number of pathways. Where is information about object recognition processed?
Answer
  • temporal lobes
  • occipital lobes
  • frontal lobes
  • parietal lobes

Question 38

Question
Where does the ventral stream project to after leaving the primary visual cortex?
Answer
  • basal forebrain
  • cerebellum
  • temporal lobes
  • parietal lobes

Question 39

Question
Charley has visual agnosia and is unable to recognize common, everyday objects. Damage to which component of the visual system does this condition most likely result from?
Answer
  • ventral stream
  • feature detectors
  • superior colliculus
  • lateral geniculate nucleus

Question 40

Question
Which of the following would you be unable to recognize if you had a condition known as prosopagnosia?
Answer
  • lines with a 45-degree orientation
  • colours
  • movement
  • faces

Question 41

Question
In which of the following lobes would you find that brain damage leads to visual agnosia?
Answer
  • frontal
  • occipital
  • temporal
  • parietal

Question 42

Question
You see a delicious-looking doughnut sitting on the counter in front of you, and you guide your hand toward the doughnut and pop it into your mouth. What do we call the second visual process for guiding your hand?
Answer
  • Hubel vision
  • conscious vision
  • subcortical vision
  • vision for action

Question 43

Question
In the case study of “DF,” a woman experienced brain damage as a result of carbonmonoxide poisoning and lost the ability to recognize the forms of objects. What type of deficit did “DF” have?
Answer
  • amnesia
  • failure of vision for action
  • dorsal stream damage
  • agnosia

Question 44

Question
Which of the following activities would be difficult for you to do if you sustained damage to your dorsal stream?
Answer
  • say the name of an item that you see
  • choose colours that match
  • recognize your best friend
  • reach out to pick up a cup

Question 45

Question
Deanne can see and recognize objects, but she seems to be unable to reach out and grasp them appropriately. She often knocks over cups and drops pencils because she doesn’t orient her hand to grip them. If this problem is related to brain damage to the perceptual system, which of the following areas is most likely to be damaged?
Answer
  • ventral stream
  • dorsal stream
  • primary visual cortex
  • superior colliculus

Question 46

Question
While finger painting, Imran mixed yellow paint and blue paint and ended up with green. Which mixing method did Imran use?
Answer
  • subtractive colour mixing
  • trichromatic mixing
  • additive colour mixing
  • multiplicative colour mixing

Question 47

Question
If you were to shine lights of different colours onto a surface, so that the lights overlap, what type of colour mixing are you using?
Answer
  • subtractive
  • opponent processes
  • additive
  • saturation

Question 48

Question
If you project a red, a green, and a blue light into space, what colour will be perceived at the point where the three lights cross?
Answer
  • grey
  • ultraviolet
  • black
  • white

Question 49

Question
If you mix red, green, and blue paint, what colour will you get?
Answer
  • orange
  • white
  • purple
  • black

Question 50

Question
At the musical he attended over the weekend, Andrew noticed that whenever the red and green spotlights overlapped, they seemed to change to a yellow spotlight. Which principle explains this perception?
Answer
  • complex feature detection
  • subtractive colour mixing
  • additive colour mixing
  • opponent processing of colours

Question 51

Question
Television sets are able to re-create the entire visible spectrum by mixing three primary colours of light. Which theory of human colour vision is similar to this mechanism?
Answer
  • opponent process
  • saturation
  • trichromatic
  • complementary colour

Question 52

Question
What differs in the visual perception of a human dichromat and a human trichromat?
Answer
  • colour vision
  • visual acuity
  • dark and light adaptation
  • peripheral vision

Question 53

Question
Hering’s opponent process theory suggests that receptors are linked antagonistically in pairs. What are his opposed pairs?
Answer
  • red-yellow; blue-green; black-white
  • yellow-green; red-blue; black-white
  • red-green; yellow-blue; black-white
  • red-black; yellow-white; green-blue

Question 54

Question
Eli has been wearing green welding goggles for the past 30 minutes. Based on the opponent process theory of colour vision, what colour will white objects appear to be for a brief time after Eli takes off the green goggles?
Answer
  • blue
  • yellow
  • orange
  • red

Question 55

Question
According to one theory of colour vision, colours are signalled in pairs by neurons that fire faster to one colour and slower to another colour. What is this theory called?
Answer
  • trichromatic theory
  • dichromatic theory
  • opponent process theory
  • complementary colour theory

Question 56

Question
Denise was momentarily blinded when paparazzi snapped her picture using a blue flash. Following the flash, she saw spots for several minutes. What colour were the spots, based on the opponent process theory of colour vision?
Answer
  • yellow
  • blue
  • red
  • green

Question 57

Question
After having your picture taken with a yellow flash, you momentarily see blue spots floating before your eyes. Which process best explains this phenomenon?
Answer
  • additive colour mixing
  • trichromatic theory
  • opponent process theory
  • subtractive colour mixing

Question 58

Question
Which theory of colour vision is supported by the action of the lateral geniculate nucleus?
Answer
  • Helmholtz’
  • trichromatic
  • opponent process
  • Weber’s

Question 59

Question
Which of the following is the best description of the current view of how colour is coded in the visual system?
Answer
  • It starts as an opponent process and then switches to a trichromatic process.
  • It starts with rods and then switches to cones.
  • It begins with cones and then switches to rods.
  • It begins with a trichromatic process and then switches to an opponent process.

Question 60

Question
Three groups of students completed the same test, but each group’s tests had a different coloured cover. Based on research results by Andrew Elliot and his colleagues, which group should have the lowest average score on the test?
Answer
  • the group with black tests
  • the group with red tests
  • the group with green tests
  • the group with white tests
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