Fluid & Electrolyte Balance Quiz 1

Jessdwill
Quiz by Jessdwill, updated more than 1 year ago
Jessdwill
Created by Jessdwill almost 6 years ago
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http://intranet.tdmu.edu.ua/data/kafedra/internal/meds/metod_rozrobky/en/nurse/BSN%20%284year%29%20Program/3.Junior%20year/Fall%20Semester/Foundations%20of%20Nursing%20Practicum/17.%20%20Fluid%20and%20Electrolyte%20Balance.htm

Resource summary

Question 1

Question
Which of the following are signs of hyperkalemia? SELECT ALL THAT APPLY.
Answer
  • positive Chvostek's sign
  • tall, tented T waves
  • abdominal cramping
  • soft, flabby muscles
  • paresthesias

Question 2

Question
Why do older adults generally have less total body water than younger adults?
Answer
  • As functional cells die during the aging process, less water is needed.
  • The muscle mass of older adults is smaller than the muscle mass of younger adults.
  • Older adults have a smaller extracellular fluid to intracellular fluid ratio than younger adults.
  • The plasma volume of older adults is decreased to reduce the risk for excess fluid volume and heart failure.

Question 3

Question
Which clinical manifestation supports the concept that filtration is directly related to hydrostatic pressure?
Answer
  • Capillary refill is faster in fingers than in toes.
  • Central venous pressure is lowest in the right atrium.
  • Pitting edema is usually detected first in dependent areas.
  • Systolic blood pressure is higher than diastolic blood pressure.

Question 4

Question
When evaluating the hydration status, the nurse observes tenting of the skin on the back of the 87-year-old client’s hand when testing the skin turgor. What is the nurse’s best action?
Answer
  • Notify the physician.
  • Examine dependent body areas.
  • Assess turgor on the client's forehead.
  • Document the finding as the only action.

Question 5

Question
What effect would an infusion of 200 mL of albumin have on a healthy client's plasma osmotic and hydrostatic pressures?
Answer
  • Increased osmotic pressure, increased hydrostatic pressure
  • Increased osmotic pressure, decreased hydrostatic pressure
  • Decreased osmotic pressure, increased hydrostatic pressure
  • Decreased osmotic pressure, decreased hydrostatic pressure

Question 6

Question
Why does pulmonary edema form in a client who has left-sided heart failure?
Answer
  • Increased blood volume in pulmonary vessels, increased blood osmotic pressure
  • Increased blood volume in pulmonary vessels, decreased blood osmotic pressure
  • Increased blood volume in pulmonary vessels, increased blood hydrostatic pressure
  • Increased blood volume in pulmonary vessels, decreased blood hydrostatic pressure

Question 7

Question
What is the expected action when capillary pores increase in size?
Answer
  • Increased filtration, increased plasma volume
  • Increased filtration, decreased plasma volume
  • Decreased filtration, increased plasma volume
  • Decreased filtration, decreased plasma volume

Question 8

Question
Which condition is most likely to cause formation of edema?
Answer
  • Increased plasma osmotic pressure, increased plasma hydrostatic pressure
  • Increased plasma osmotic pressure, decreased plasma hydrostatic pressure
  • Decreased plasma osmotic pressure, increased plasma hydrostatic pressure
  • Decreased plasma osmotic pressure, decreased plasma hydrostatic pressure

Question 9

Question
Which assessment technique would be the best for the nurse to use to determine the adequacy of circulation in a client whose blood osmolarity is 250 mOsm/L?
Answer
  • Checking urine output
  • Measuring abdominal girth
  • Monitoring fluid intake
  • Comparing the radial pulse with the apical pulse

Question 10

Question
Which community-dwelling healthy person has the greatest risk for dehydration when exposed to a hot, dry environment for several hours?
Answer
  • 50-year-old man
  • 50-year-old woman
  • 80-year-old man
  • 80-year-old woman

Question 11

Question
How is the process of active transport beneficial to human living systems?
Answer
  • Active transport moves substances against a concentration gradient, allowing fluid compartment volume ionic differences to be maintained.
  • Active transport allows the fluid lost at the capillary–interstitial compartment interface to be returned by lymph flow to the systemic circulation.
  • When diffusion is limited by membrane impermeability, active transport maintains homeostasis of osmolarity across all body fluid compartments.
  • When osmosis cannot occur during periods of anoxia, active transport facilitates movement of glucose across cell membranes so that energy production is not disrupted.
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