Physio Exam 1

meredithlnrd
Quiz by meredithlnrd, updated more than 1 year ago
meredithlnrd
Created by meredithlnrd about 6 years ago
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Description

for the first physio exam

Resource summary

Question 1

Question
Which of the following is responsible in a feedback system for comparing the rate of activity or the level of product to a set point for the body?
Answer
  • Sensor
  • Integrator
  • Effector

Question 2

Question
Which of the following is an example of antagonistic competition?
Answer
  • Sodium flurooacetate creating flurocitrate which binds to aconitase instead of it's normal ligand, citrate, and inhibiting the enzyme
  • Phosphorylating the enzyme pyruvate kinase, inhibiting the enzyme until a phosphatase reactivates it later
  • AMP binding to phosphofructokinase-1 which helps activate the enzyme in times of low energy
  • Morphine binding to opiod receptors in the body, producing the same effects but binding instead of the natural opiods the body produces

Question 3

Question
Which of the following is an example of how the body can endogenously provide its own molecular building blocks?
Answer
  • diet
  • symbiotic organisms (natural flora)
  • de novo synthesis

Question 4

Question
Monosaccharides are held together with...
Answer
  • Glycosidic bonds
  • Ester bonds
  • Peptide bonds
  • Phosphodiester bonds
  • Hydrogen bonds
  • Covalent bonds

Question 5

Question
Which of the following protein structures include alpha-helices and beta-sheets?
Answer
  • primary
  • secondary
  • tertiary
  • quaternary

Question 6

Question
Which of the following is not a function of nucleic acids and a proteins? (not a function of both?)
Answer
  • Structure
  • Catalyst
  • Chemical messengers
  • Solubility barrier

Question 7

Question
What bonds hold DNA structures together (double helix)?
Answer
  • Phosphodiester bonds
  • Peptide bonds
  • Hydrogen bonds
  • Covalent bonds
  • Ester bonds
  • Glycosidic bonds

Question 8

Question
The difference of a cell based on the location that you are in in the cell is referred to as
Answer
  • Size
  • Polarity
  • Responsiveness
  • Differentiation

Question 9

Question
Which of these abilities is special to stem cells?
Answer
  • Ability to self renew
  • Ability to differentiate into specialized cells
  • Neither
  • Both

Question 10

Question
Which of the following is an example of an active symport transportation?
Answer
  • Glucose moving across the membrane
  • Na/K pump
  • Na/amino acid transporter
  • ATP Synthase

Question 11

Question
What organelle's outside membrane is continuous with rough ER?
Answer
  • Nucleus
  • Ribosomes
  • Golgi Apparatus
  • Lysosomes

Question 12

Question
Polyribosomes are...
Answer
  • multiple ribosomes attached to 1 strand of mRNA, responsible for creating proteins to be sent outside the cell
  • multiple ribosomes attached to the rough ER, responsible for intracellular proteins
  • multiple ribosomes attached to rough ER, responsible for creating proteins to be sent outside of the cell
  • multiple ribosomes attached to 1 strand of mRNA, responsible for intracellular proteins

Question 13

Question
What is responsible for the addition of carbohydrate chains to proteins or for multi-subunit protein assembly?
Answer
  • Rough ER
  • Golgi Apparatus
  • Smooth ER
  • Ribosomes

Question 14

Question
Which of the following aids in defending against infections?
Answer
  • Vacuoles
  • Golgi Apparatus
  • Lysosomes
  • Ribosomes

Question 15

Question
What are the products of glycolysis?
Answer
  • 2 pyruvate, 2 NADH, 2 ATP
  • 2 pyruvate, 1 NADH, 1 ATP
  • 3 NADH, 2 CO2, 1 GTP, 1 FADH2
  • 4 NADH, 2 CO2, 1 GTP, 2 FADH2

Question 16

Question
What are the products of Krebs Cycle?
Answer
  • 2 pyruvate, 2 NADH, 2 ATP
  • 2 pyruvate, 1 NADH, 1 ATP
  • 3 NADH, 2 CO2, 1 GTP, 1 FADH2
  • 4 NADH, 2 CO2, 1 GTP, 2 FADH2

Question 17

Question
What does adenylate cyclase do?
Answer
  • convert ATP to ADP
  • convert ATP to AMP
  • convert 2 ADPs to AMP
  • convert ATP to cAMP

Question 18

Question
During oderant signaling, what happens to depolarize the membrane?
Answer
  • opening of Na/Ca2+ channels
  • opening of Cl- channels
  • Opening of Na/K pumps
  • Opening of Na/Ca2+ channels AND Cl- channels
  • Opening of Na/K pumps AND Cl- channels

Question 19

Question
Which of the following will inactivate the oderant signal?
Answer
  • hydrolysis of cAMP
  • hydrolysis of AMP
  • Restoration of potassium ions
  • phosphorylation of adenylate cyclase

Question 20

Question
What is different about estrogen and glucocorticoid signalling?
Answer
  • 1) it uses ligand-activated transcription factors
  • 2) It doesn't go through GPCR
  • 3) It bypasses external protein receptors
  • 1) and 2)
  • 2) and 3)
  • All of the above

Question 21

Question
What is VEGF used in response to?
Answer
  • It is used to relax contracted respiratory muscles
  • It is used to maintain and expand the capacity of vascular systems
  • It is used to regulate fluid and electrolyte balance
  • it is used to regulate appetite

Question 22

Question
What best describes the pathway for VEGF?
Answer
  • GPCR activates AC which produces cAMP which activates ion channels that allow for depolarization
  • tyrosine kinase is activated and phosphorylates intracellular proteins which leads to an increase in calcium and an activation of transcription factors
  • GPCR is activated which leads to an activation of AC which leads to cAMP increases that activate kinases that leads to a drop in calcium

Question 23

Question
What leads to the muscle relaxation in the pathway following epinephrine binding to GPCR?
Answer
  • drop in calcium
  • decrease in cAMP
  • dephosphorylation of muscle proteins
  • opening of Cl- channels

Question 24

Question
In the ADH pathway, what does the activation of protein kinases lead to?
Answer
  • phosphorylation of muscle cells
  • Release of growth hormone
  • transcription of aquaporin-2 gene
  • opening of ion channels

Question 25

Question
What does the release of intracellular calcium in the ghrelin pathway ultimately lead to?
Answer
  • muscle contraction
  • the release of GH (growth hormone)
  • depolarization of the membrane
  • influx of water

Question 26

Question
What do sequential phosphorylation by MEK/ERK pathways activate?
Answer
  • RNA polymerase
  • muscle contraction
  • transcription factors
  • opening of ion channels

Question 27

Question
Myc and fos are activated by which receptor?
Answer
  • Growth factor receptor
  • VEGF
  • Vasopressin 2

Question 28

Question
What occurs during G1 phase?
Answer
  • chromosomes are replicated
  • transcription ceases
  • ATP is restored in preparation of distribution of chromosomes and organelles
  • ATP is accumulated while the cell grows in size

Question 29

Question
What are cyclins/Cdk important in?
Answer
  • 1) transitioning between phases in the cell cycle
  • 2) acting as an aid in the "checkpoints" for the cell cycle
  • 3) phosphorylating the checkpoints in the cell cycle
  • 1 and 2
  • 2 and 3
  • all of the above

Question 30

Question
What are mitogens?
Answer
  • 1) growth factors that promote entry into the cell cycle
  • 2) signalling agents that increase cyclin D gene expression
  • 3) signalling agents that prevent cyclin D breakdown
  • 1) and 2)
  • 2) and 3)
  • All of the above

Question 31

Question
What ability does RNA polymerase have that differs from other polymerases?
Answer
  • The ability to transcribe several different RNA strands at once
  • The ability to detect and repair mismatches
  • The ability to attach directly to ribosomes
  • The ability to synthesize both DNA and RNA

Question 32

Question
Which of the following is not a consequence of DNA damage?
Answer
  • DNA repair
  • Cell Cycle arrest
  • Transcription of an incorrect protein leading to protein repair
  • Apoptosis/Necrosis
  • Cell Growth

Question 33

Question
How is the endonuclease enzyme used in DNA repair?
Answer
  • It flanks the site of the DNA damage to help isolate it
  • It clips out the DNA via dual incision
  • It fills the gap with correctly paired bases
  • It recognizes the damage and alerts the rest of the cell

Question 34

Question
Which of the following properties of a muscle refers to the muscle's ability to stretch beyond its normal resting length to a certain degree?
Answer
  • Contractility
  • Excitability
  • Extensibility
  • Elasticity

Question 35

Question
What is the best example of parallel-elastic component in a single muscle system?
Answer
  • The tendons lying next to the muscle
  • The sarcolemma of the muscle
  • The agonist muscle of a system
  • The antagonist muscle of a system

Question 36

Question
What forms the multinucleated synctium?
Answer
  • myofibrils merging to form myoblasts
  • myoblasts merging to form myotubes
  • myofibrils merging to form myotubes
  • myoblasts merging to form myofibrils

Question 37

Question
What is the midpoint of the sarcomere?
Answer
  • A band
  • I band
  • H zone
  • M line
  • Z line

Question 38

Question
What is the length of the thick filaments?
Answer
  • H zone
  • I band
  • A band
  • M line
  • Z line

Question 39

Question
What is the distance between adjacent thick filaments in a sarcomere called?
Answer
  • M line
  • A band
  • I band
  • Z lines
  • H zone/band

Question 40

Question
What is the lines in the middle of the I bands that form the ends of the sarcomere?
Answer
  • H zone
  • Z lines
  • I band
  • A band
  • M line

Question 41

Question
What is the region in between thin filaments?
Answer
  • H zone
  • Z lines
  • I band
  • A band
  • M line

Question 42

Question
What is the purpose of alpha-actinin?
Answer
  • To attach thin filaments to Z lines
  • to act as a template for the formation of the thin filament
  • to connect thick filaments to Z lines
  • to prevent the sarcomere from being pulled apart

Question 43

Question
What is the purpose of nebulin?
Answer
  • To act as a template for formation of the thin filament
  • To attach thin filaments to Z lines
  • To connect thick filaments to Z lines
  • To prevent the sarcomere from being pulled apart during muscle stretching

Question 44

Question
What prevents the sarcomere from being pulled apart during muscle stretching and also anchors the thick filaments to the Z line?
Answer
  • alpha-actinin
  • nebulin
  • titin

Question 45

Question
What allows for the myosin head to attach to the actin?
Answer
  • increase in calcium
  • dissociation of ADP and P from the myosin head
  • the binding of ADP and P to the myosin head

Question 46

Question
The dissociation of ADP and P from the myosin head allows the myosin head to do what?
Answer
  • allows the myosin head to attach to actin
  • allows the myosin head to undergo a power stroke, which moves the actin muscle through a contraction
  • allows the myosin head to reattach to the actin filament

Question 47

Question
What allows the myosin head to detach from the actin filament?
Answer
  • the presence of calcium
  • the dissociation of ADP and P
  • the reattachment of ADP and P

Question 48

Question
What does aponeurosis refer to?
Answer
  • Dead muscle
  • Dead skin
  • A very broad tendon
  • A very small tendon

Question 49

Question
What does an agonist muscle do?
Answer
  • A muscle that produces an action when it contracts
  • It relaxes when the prime mover contracts, acting in opposition
  • It provides elastic support for the prime mover

Question 50

Question
An influx of sodium will lead to a...
Answer
  • depolarization
  • repolarization
  • hyperpolarization

Question 51

Question
The resting membrane potential is _____________ compared to the outside.
Answer
  • negative
  • positive

Question 52

Question
A motor unit is...
Answer
  • a single muscle fiber
  • a muscle neuron
  • a muscle neuron and all of its attached fibers
  • a muscle fiber and all of its attached neurons

Question 53

Question
What does the binding of ACh enact in a muscle cell?
Answer
  • The release of sodium
  • The release of chlorine
  • The release of potassium
  • The release of calcium

Question 54

Question
What is DHPR responsible for?
Answer
  • receiving ACh
  • opening in response to membrane depolarization and activating RyR
  • activating SERCA and allowing for the uptake of calcium
  • allowing the action potential to enter the muscle cell
  • opening the sarcoplasmic reticulum and releasing calcium into the cell

Question 55

Question
Isotonic is...
Answer
  • a contraction of a constant load
  • a contraction of a constant length

Question 56

Question
High myosin ATPase activity, high shortening velocity, and rapid fatigue are common of which types of fibers?
Answer
  • fast
  • slow
  • oxidative
  • glycolytic

Question 57

Question
Low intensity exercise affects...
Answer
  • glycolytic fibers
  • oxidative fibers

Question 58

Question
Atrophy of muscles is a result of all of the following except
Answer
  • aging
  • disease
  • inactivity
  • diet

Question 59

Question
Every third amino acid in collagen is...
Answer
  • glycine
  • lysine
  • proline
  • glutamine

Question 60

Question
Procollagen is...
Answer
  • a regulatory protein of water
  • a carb that provides lubrication and spacing between fibers
  • a peptide needed to inhibit the self-assembly of collagen molecule they are exported out of the cell
  • a shock absorber for collagen

Question 61

Question
Healing a tendon results in all of the following except
Answer
  • increased vascularity
  • collagen degeneration
  • collagen organization
  • fibroblast proliferation
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