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Anatomical terminology - Axial Skeleton

Description

Anatomical terminology, skull and mandible, soft tissue of the head, pharynx/larynx and neck, axial skeleton
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Quiz by celine_barbiersg, updated more than 1 year ago
celine_barbiersg
Created by celine_barbiersg over 6 years ago
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19

Resource summary

Question 1

Question
The appendicular skeleton is
Answer
  • mainly a propulsive structure with some supportive role: the hind limbs support and the forelimbs propulse and steer.
  • mainly a supportive structure with some propulsive role: the hind limbs support and steer and forelimbs propulse.
  • mainly a supportive structure with some propulsive role: the hind limbs are propulsive and forelimbs support and steer.
  • mainly a propulsive structure with some supportive role: the hind limbs are propulsive and forelimbs support and steer.

Question 2

Question
What is a bone of the heterotopic skeleton
Answer
  • humerus
  • skull
  • os penis
  • sternum

Question 3

Question
Which bones are part of the axial skeleton?
Answer
  • Skull
  • Scapula
  • Sternum
  • Sacrum

Question 4

Question
What is another name for vertebrae C2?
Answer
  • Atlas
  • Axis
  • Xiphoid
  • Cranial 2

Question 5

Question
The skeleton functions are to support, help with locomotion, protect the brain and the heart and lungs, and form red blood cells, it cannot store calcium and phosphorus.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 6

Question
Palmar stands for:
Answer
  • caudal aspect of the forelimb below the carpus and the surface of the fore paw that contacts the ground
  • caudal aspect of the hindlimb below the tarsus and the surface of the hind paw that contacts the ground

Question 7

Question
What is an example of a fibrous joint?
Answer
  • skull sutures
  • mandibular symphysis
  • growth plate
  • hip joint

Question 8

Question
Cranial movement of the limb such as reaching out is called:
Answer
  • protraction
  • retraction

Question 9

Question
Moving limb away from the median plane or from the body trunk is called an:
Answer
  • abduction
  • adduction

Question 10

Question
Supination is defined as:
Answer
  • Lateral rotation of appendage so that palmar/plantar surface of paw faces medially
  • Lateral rotation of appendage so that palmar/plantar surface of paw faces the substrate

Question 11

Question
The most proximal, dorsal, cranial or central attachment of a muscle is called its:
Answer
  • origin
  • insertion

Question 12

Question
A brachiocephalic dog has an elongated, narrow skull
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 13

Question
This is a dorsal view of the skull. What is the name of the bone colored in GREEN.
Answer
  • incisive
  • nasal
  • maxilla
  • frontal

Question 14

Question
This is a dorsal view of the skull. What is the name of the bone colored in LIGHT PINK
Answer
  • temporal
  • parietal
  • zygomatic
  • frontal

Question 15

Question
This is a ventral view of the skull. what is the name of the bone colored in LIGHT ORANGE?
Answer
  • vomer
  • pterygoid
  • palatine
  • basisphenoid
  • presphenoid

Question 16

Question
The skull articulates with the temporo-mandibular joint at the __________ of the ramus.
Answer
  • coronoid process
  • condylar process
  • angular process
  • coracoid process

Question 17

Question
The vomer bone is rostral to the presphenoid bone
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 18

Question
The sagittal crest runs caudal to rostral, from the occipital bone to the temporal bone
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 19

Question
Choose the correct order rostral to caudal for these 3 landmarks of the skull
Answer
  • optic canal, orbital fissure, rostral alar foramen
  • orbital fissure, rostral alar foramen, optic canal
  • rostral alar foramen, optic canal, orbital fissure

Question 20

Question
The mandibular foramen is the:
Answer
  • caudal opening of the mandibular canal
  • rostral opening of the mandibular canal

Question 21

Question
What landmark is number 20 pointing at?
Answer
  • hard palate
  • vomer
  • choanae
  • nasal aperture

Question 22

Question
What is #12 pointing at?
Answer
  • retroarticular foramen
  • external acoustic meatus
  • stylomastoid process
  • tympanic bulla

Question 23

Question
What type of joint is the TMJ ? What movements does it allow?
Answer
  • condylar cartilaginous joint, allows movement in one axial plane only.
  • coronoid synovial joint, allows rotational and lateral sliding with little movement in one axial plane.
  • condylar synovial joint, allows movement in one axial plane, little rotational and lateral sliding.
  • coronoid cartilaginous joint, allows movement in a hinge-like fashion

Question 24

Question
How many teeth does a dog have in total?
Answer
  • 42
  • 30
  • 40
  • 32
  • 46

Question 25

Question
How many molars does a dog have on 1 upper hemi-mandibule?
Answer
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
  • 1

Question 26

Question
What is the dental formula of the dog?
Answer
  • 2* I 3/3 C 1/1 P 3/2 M 1/1
  • 2* I 3/3 C 1/1 P 3/2 M 2/2
  • 2* I 3/3 C 1/1 P 4/4 M 3/2
  • 2* I 3/3 C 1/1 P 4/4 M 2/3

Question 27

Question
In normal dental occlusion, the upper incisors are 1________ the lower incisors, the lower canines sit between the 2_________ and the 3__________, the premolars interdigitate in a 4_________________, and the upper last premolar and molars rest 5_______ to the lower molars.
Answer
  • 1 behind, 2 upper canine, 3 last upper incisor, 4 pinking shear, 5 lateral
  • 1 ahead of, 2 upper canine, 3 first premolar, 4 pinking shear, 5 lateral
  • 1 in line with, 2 upper canine, 3 first premolar, 4 pinking shear, 5 medial
  • 1 ahead, 2 upper canine, 3 last upper incisor, 4 pinking shear, 5 lateral

Question 28

Question
Select the odd one out
Answer
  • tympanic bulla
  • occipital condyle
  • choanae
  • paracondylar process
  • sagittal crest

Question 29

Question
Mimetic muscles are innervated with what nerve?
Answer
  • facial nerve
  • cranial nerve V
  • trigeminal nerve
  • mimetic nerve

Question 30

Question
Which muscle(s) of the face help(s) raise the lips?
Answer
  • orbicularis oris
  • levator nasolabialis
  • caninus
  • zygomaticus
  • platysma

Question 31

Question
Which muscle(s) open(s) the mouth?
Answer
  • digastricus
  • temporalis
  • masseter
  • pterygoid

Question 32

Question
The ____________ runs from the occipital area of the skull to the ventral part of the body of the mandible
Answer
  • zygomaticus
  • digastricus
  • temporalis
  • platysma

Question 33

Question
What is the bone labeled 3?
Answer
  • Thyrohyoid
  • Epihyoid
  • Stylohyoid
  • Tympanohyoid
  • Ceratohyoid

Question 34

Question
Which muscle is split during a tracheostomy?
Answer
  • sternohyoideus
  • mylohyoideus
  • brachiocephalicus
  • geniohyoideus

Question 35

Question
What is the function of the styloglossus muscle?
Answer
  • retract and depress the tongue
  • retract and elevate the tongue
  • protrude and retract apex

Question 36

Question
What is the function of the hyoglossus muscle?
Answer
  • retract and depress
  • retract and elevate
  • protrude tongue and retract apex

Question 37

Question
The styloglossus, hyoglossus and genioglossus are examples of _________ muscles
Answer
  • intrinsic
  • extrinsic

Question 38

Question
Which gland duct opens at the level of the upper fourth premolar tooth
Answer
  • parotid
  • zygomatic
  • sublingual
  • mandibular

Question 39

Question
The parotid gland is lateral to the mandibular gland on a ventral view.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 40

Question
The mandibular lymph nodes are caudal to the retropharyngeal lymph nodes
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 41

Question
The trachea is dorsal to the oesophagus
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 42

Question
The epiglottis flips caudally to allow food to pass to the oesophagus
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 43

Question
In brachiocephalic breeds the __________________ can cause airway obstruction
Answer
  • elongation of the soft palate
  • shortening of the hard palate
  • smaller oropharynx
  • overprotruding epiglottis

Question 44

Question
The whole swallowing process works due to a coordinated series of events which begins involuntarily but, upon food contact with the highly sensitive pharyngeal mucosa, continues voluntarily.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 45

Question
Contraction of the cricopharyngeus muscle allows the bolus of food to enter the oesophagus
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 46

Question
Pharyngeal muscles are supplied by the:
Answer
  • vagus X and glossopharyngeal IX nerves
  • glossopharyngeal IX nerve only
  • hypoglossal and vagus X nerves
  • trigeminal and glossopharyngeal IX nerves

Question 47

Question
Which is NOT true concerning the gag reflex?
Answer
  • protective spasm mediated by the vagus X and the hypoglossal IX nerve
  • activated by oropharyngeal wall irritation during swallowing
  • neuromuscular disease, anesthesia or altered consciousness can affect this reflex
  • absence of the reflex can suggest nerve damage

Question 48

Question
The pharyngeal muscles comprise
Answer
  • Constrictors
  • Extenders
  • Dilators
  • Elongators
  • Shorteners

Question 49

Question
List the cartilage of the larynx from cranial to caudal
Answer
  • Epiglottis, Cricoid, Thyroid, Arytenoid
  • Epiglottis, Cricoid, Arytenoid, Thyroid
  • Thyroid, Epiglottis, Arytenoid, Cricoid
  • Epiglottis, Thyroid, Arytenoid, Cricoid

Question 50

Question
Select muscles of the larynx
Answer
  • cricothyroid
  • thyrocricoid
  • arytenothyroideus dorsalis
  • cricoarytenoideus dorsalis
  • thyroarytenoideus

Question 51

Question
The cricothyroid muscle is the only one innervated by the cranial laryngeal nerve
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 52

Question
The cricoarytenoideus dorsalis ________ the glottis while the cricoarytenoideus lateralis __________ it.
Answer
  • closes, opens
  • opens, closes
  • tenses, relaxes
  • relaxes, tenses

Question 53

Question
The cricothyroid _____the vocal fold while the thyroarytenoideus ______it.
Answer
  • tenses, relaxes
  • opens, closes
  • closes, opens
  • relaxes, tenses

Question 54

Question
Epaxial muscles lie dorsally while hypaxial muscles lie ventrally to the transverse process of the vertebral column.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 55

Question
Epaxial muscles
Answer
  • support the spinal column
  • flex the neck or tail

Question 56

Question
Which epaxial muscle supporting the spinal column is the most medial
Answer
  • iliocostalis
  • longissimus
  • transversospinalis
  • sclaneus

Question 57

Question
Which muscle of the hypaxial group can be found in the neck area?
Answer
  • psoas
  • sclaneus
  • rectus capitis ventralis
  • longissimus

Question 58

Question
In figure 3.6 (a) [on the left] What is the name of the structure colored in dark blue?
Answer
  • brachiocephalicus
  • sternocephalicus
  • trapezius
  • splenius

Question 59

Question
Where does the brachiocephalicus muscle originate?
Answer
  • clavicle
  • cervical vertebrae
  • mastoid process of the skull
  • humerus

Question 60

Question
What is the average total number of bones in an adult male dog?
Answer
  • 213
  • 321
  • 431
  • 342

Question 61

Question
How many pair of ribs does a dog have and how many pairs are considered "true ribs"?
Answer
  • The dog has 13 pair of ribs, 9 are considered true.
  • The dog has 14 pair of ribs, 10 are considered true.
  • The dog has 13 pair of ribs, 8 are considered true.
  • The dog has 11 pair of ribs, 8 are considered true.

Question 62

Question
Another name for sternebrae 1 of the sternum is?
Answer
  • xiphoid
  • body
  • manubrium
  • atlas

Question 63

Question
Name the rib features from dorsal to ventral
Answer
  • head, neck, tubercle, body
  • body, tubercle, neck, head
  • tubercle, neck, head, body
  • head, body, tubercle, neck

Question 64

Question
What is the vertebral formula for the dog?
Answer
  • Cervical 7, Thoracic 11, Lumbar 7, Sacrum 3, Caudal 20-23
  • Cervical 7, Thoracic 13, Lumbar 7, Sacrum 3, Caudal 20-23
  • Cervical 7, Thoracic 12, Lumbar 7, Sacrum 3, Caudal 20-23
  • Cervical 7, Thoracic 13, Lumbar 7, Sacrum 3, Caudal 21-23

Question 65

Question
List some of the characteristics of the Atlas
Answer
  • large flat wings or transverse processes
  • lateral and transverse foramens
  • tall spinous process
  • fovea dentis and caudal articular fovea
  • odontoid processes

Question 66

Question
All vertebrae have a body, a vertebral arch and various processes: cranial and caudal articular processes, transverse, spinous, accessory or mammillary depending on the vertebrae concerned.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 67

Question
Characteristics of the axis
Answer
  • tall spinous process dorsally
  • cranial projections called dens
  • transverse processes pointing cranially
  • transverse foramen
  • all the above

Question 68

Question
C7 has a noticeably large transverse process
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 69

Question
C7 has a tall spinous process
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 70

Question
The first 9 thoracic vertebrae are similar while the last 4 begin to resemble lumbar vertebrae.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 71

Question
Characteristics of the thoracic vertebrae
Answer
  • tall spinous process
  • short vertebral body
  • mamillary process
  • short and sharp transverse process
  • all the above

Question 72

Question
T10 has a spinous process that is more or less perpendicular to the long axis of the bone, known as the anticlinal vertebra
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 73

Question
Characteristics of lumbar vertebra
Answer
  • tall spinous process
  • large transverse process point cranially
  • short bodies
  • wide spinous process
  • none of the above

Question 74

Question
Select the vertebra that has a mamillary process
Answer
  • lumbar
  • thoracic
  • cervical
  • caudal
  • sacral

Question 75

Question
Characteristics of caudal vertebra
Answer
  • taper and get shorter caudally
  • cylindrical
  • 20-23 of them
  • also known as coccygeal
  • all the above

Question 76

Question
The vertebral column is said to be flexed when it is arched dorsally
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 77

Question
What is the structure colored in pink called?
Answer
  • annulus fibrosus
  • nucleus pulposus
  • nucleus fibrosus
  • spinal cord
  • annulus pulposus

Question 78

Question
Between adjacent vertebrae there are discs of fibrocartilage. The center of the disc contains fibrous nucleus pulposus, surrounded by a lamellar structure of cartilaginous tissue, the annulus fibrosus. Theses discs have a shock-absorbing function.
Answer
  • True
  • False
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