Three broad sets of factors have been identified that contribute to personality
differences and similarities between people. These are genetics, ___________
environmental factors and ___________ environmental factors.
Raymond Cattell used factor analysis to reduce Gordon Allport’s list of 18,000
words. Cattell argued that there are ______ basic personality traits.
Which of the following is NOT one of the “big five” factors in the Five Factor Model of
openness to experiences
Evolutionary psychology to human behaviour assumes
that sex differences in mate selection have their origins in social structure
) that many of our behaviours are present because in our evolutionary history,
these behaviours were helpful or necessary for our species’ survival.
that most aspects of our thought or behaviour occur randomly.
all of the above
Women tend to report that they would be less ___________ if their male partner
_________________ than if he ___________________.
jealous; had a sexual relationship with another woman; fell in love with
jealous; fell in love with another woman; had a sexual relationship with
) happy; had a sexual relationship with another woman; fell in love with
d) happy; fell in love with another woman; had a sexual relationship with
6. Imagine that Francis feels anxious and guilty because she recently stole money
from her parents. Then imagine that the next day she criticises her friend for being
dishonest when her friend downloads a movie off the internet and doesn’t pay for it.
Francis is likely using which defense mechanism?
According to Rogers, believing that others value you based only on intelligence,
success, or attractiveness can lead to
uncoditional positive regard
conditions of worth
A fundamental problem for the trait approach is that
individual differences cannot be measured reliably.
situations do not affect behavior
people are inconsistent
correlational methods do not clearly indicate effect size
On Friday, Terence completes the Self- Monitoring Scale and receives a score of 49.
On the following Tuesday, he fills out the scale again and receives a score of 28.
Terence’s scores on the Self- Monitoring Scale do not appear to be
free of unwanted biases
Reliability is ________ for validity
a necessary and sufficient condition
a necessary but not sufficient condition
a sufficient condition
not at all relevant
Creative scientists with many major breakthroughs appear to have
lots of questionable ideas
no questionable ideas
a few questionable ideas
none of the above
The Remote Association Test measures ________ thinking and creativity
Artists that employ the experimental method tend to produce their best work
trial and error
visions and dreams
Which of the following was NOT one of bodily humors?
The neurotransmitter dopamine is associated with systems that
respond to reward
generate acute feelings of anxiety.
block the effects of opiates
The Big 5 personality traits can be remembered using the acronym _________.
self-esteem is defined as
an emotional evaluation of personal worth
the degree to which an individual is valued by group or community
conditions of worth
all of the above
Narcissism is defined as
highly stable self-esteem developed over time
exaggerated self-esteem compensating for insecurity.
an intergenerational judgment of younger cohorts.
Both (b) and (c).
The approach to personality test construction that examines a set of correlations
among many items in order to identify which items are highly correlated is called
the ________ approach.
Personality assessment refers to
a treatment for personality disorders
the analysis and interpretation of genetic markers of personality
the measurement of any characteristic pattern of behavior, thought, or
the selection of a group of individuals with the most unique temperaments
Cultural psychology is included within the ________ paradigm
The DSM IV is divided into ________ axes.
People who have ego- syntonic personality disorders
are accurately aware of their disorder
lose their identities.
are low in ego control and ego resiliency
) do not think anything is wrong
Psychologists following the phenomenological approach
focus on the workings of the unconscious mind and the resolution of internal
study how overt behaviour is affected by rewards and punishments.
build theoretical models of how people process information.
are concerned with our conscious experience of the world and the
consequences of having free will.
Dollard and Miller’s key idea concerns
the habit hierarchy
According to Dollard and Miller, a state of psychological tension that feels good
when it is reduced is called
a behaviour potential
a psychological conflict
According to the DSM- IV classification scheme, what are the Cluster B disorders?
histrionic, narcissistic, antisocial, and borderline
narcissistic, antisocial, and borderline
histrionic, obsessive- compulsive, and paranoid
schizotypal, narcissistic, antisocial, and borderline