Clinical Medicine: Pulmonary Pathophysiology I

cskrewson0519
Quiz by cskrewson0519, updated more than 1 year ago
cskrewson0519
Created by cskrewson0519 almost 6 years ago
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Description

Pulmonary Pathophysiology I

Resource summary

Question 1

Question
The respiratory tract is composed of these types of cells:
Answer
  • columnar
  • psuedostratified
  • ciliated
  • goblet
  • all of the above

Question 2

Question
In respiration, the [blank_start]sympathetic[blank_end] nervous system uses [blank_start]adrenergic[blank_end] neurons and [blank_start]B2[blank_end] receptors to dilate the airways; and the [blank_start]parasympathetic[blank_end] nervous system uses [blank_start]cholinergic[blank_end] neurons and [blank_start]muscarinic[blank_end] receptors to constrict the airways.
Answer
  • sympathetic
  • parasympathetic
  • adrenergic
  • cholinergic
  • parasympathetic
  • sympathetic
  • cholinergic
  • adrenergic
  • muscarinic
  • B2
  • B2
  • muscarinic

Question 3

Question
[blank_start]Type 1 Pneumocytes[blank_end] in the alveoli allow for the diffusion of gases. [blank_start]Type 2 Pneumocytes[blank_end] produce [blank_start]surfactant[blank_end] to reduce surface tension. [blank_start]Alveolar macrophages[blank_end] remove dust.
Answer
  • Type 1 Pneumocytes
  • Type 2 Pneumocytes
  • Type 2 Pneumocytes
  • Type 1 Pneumocytes
  • surfactant
  • macrophages
  • glucosamine
  • Alveolar macrophages
  • Alveolar mast cells
  • Aveolar goblet cells

Question 4

Question
Internal and external intercostal muscles are not used for inspiration during normal quiet breathing.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 5

Question
The [blank_start]diaphragm[blank_end] is the prime mover of respiration, contracting it [blank_start]enlarges the thoracic cavity[blank_end], causing [blank_start]inspiration[blank_end]; whereas relaxing it causes [blank_start]expiration[blank_end]. This accounts for about [blank_start]2/3[blank_end] of airflow.
Answer
  • diaphragm
  • intercostal m.
  • enlarges the thoracic cavity
  • decreases the thoracic cavity
  • inspiration
  • expiration
  • expiration
  • inspiration
  • 2/3
  • 1/2
  • 1/3

Question 6

Question
Expiration is normally passive, caused by the elastic recoil of distended alveoli.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 7

Question
[blank_start]Tidal Volume[blank_end] - volume that fills the lungs (alveoli and airways) during normal breathing (~ [blank_start]500[blank_end] mL) [blank_start]Vital Capacity[blank_end] - max expiration after max inspiration (~ [blank_start]4700[blank_end] mL) [blank_start]Residual Volume[blank_end] - remaining volume of air in lungs after max forced expiration (~ [blank_start]1200[blank_end] mL) [blank_start]Functional Residual Capacity[blank_end] - the volume of air remaining in lungs after a normal expiration (~ [blank_start]2400[blank_end] mL) Total Lung Capacity - [blank_start]VC + RV[blank_end] (~ [blank_start]5900[blank_end] mL) [blank_start]FEV1[blank_end] - forced VC after 1 sec
Answer
  • Tidal Volume
  • 500
  • Vital Capacity
  • 4700
  • Residual Volume
  • 1200
  • Functional Residual Capacity
  • 2400
  • VC + RV
  • 5900
  • FEV1

Question 8

Question
A normal FEV1/FVC is:
Answer
  • 0.8
  • 8.0
  • 0.2
  • 2.0
  • 0.2 - 0.5

Question 9

Question
Obstructive pulmonary disease may be caused by: (choose all that apply)
Answer
  • Excessive secretions or hypertrophy of mucous glands (e.g. chronic bronchitis)
  • Contraction, inflammation, or edema of airway wall (e.g. asthma)
  • Compression of bronchus by neoplasm
  • Destruction of lung parenchyma (e.g. emphysema)
  • Thickening of interstitium of alveolar wall

Question 10

Question
Emphysema, caused by the breakdown in alveolar wall and loss of elasticity, will result in [blank_start]increased[blank_end] compliance.
Answer
  • increased
  • decreased

Question 11

Question
Which of the following, while rare, may be the cause COPD (emphysema) symptoms in younger, non-smoking adults.
Answer
  • Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency
  • Beta-2 Adrenergic Deficiency
  • Sarcoidosis
  • Wegener's Granulomatosis
  • Goodpasture's Syndrome

Question 12

Question
COPD may cause which of the following (select all that apply)
Answer
  • Decreased FEV1/FVC ratio
  • FVC reduction
  • FEV1 reduction
  • Increased residual volume
  • Decreased residual volume

Question 13

Question
Restrictive Pulmonary Disease is caused by:
Answer
  • Diseases of the lung parenchyma
  • Diseases of the lung pleura
  • Neuromuscular diseases
  • Diseases of the chest wall
  • All of the above

Question 14

Question
Restrictive pulmonary diseases may encompass which of the following diseases/disorders: (check all that apply)
Answer
  • Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
  • Sarcoidosis
  • Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis (allergic alveolitis)
  • Pleural effusion
  • Pneumothorax
  • Guillain-Barre syndrome
  • myastenia gravis
  • Scoliosis
  • Ankylosing spondylitis
  • Poliomylelitis

Question 15

Question
Which of the following may cause both restrictive and obstructive pulmonary disorders?
Answer
  • Pulmonary edema
  • Pneumothorax
  • Sarcoidosis
  • Pulmonary fibrosis
  • All of the above may cause both

Question 16

Question
Restrictive pulmonary disease, causing the gradual replacement of normal lung tissue with fibrotic tissue, results in [blank_start]increased[blank_end] elastic recoil, [blank_start]decreased[blank_end] lung compliance, and [blank_start]decreased[blank_end] lung volumes.
Answer
  • increased
  • decreased
  • decreased
  • increased
  • decreased
  • increased

Question 17

Question
Which of the following may be true regarding forced expiratory volumes in the case of restrictive lung disease?
Answer
  • Increased FEV1/FVC
  • Decreased FEV1/FVC
  • Increased FVC
  • Decreased FVC

Question 18

Question
All lung volumes are reduced (including TLC, FRC, and RV) in restrictive lung disease, but their relative proportions to each other are more or less preserved.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 19

Question
Which of the following are TRUE for Restrictive lung diseases:
Answer
  • FEV1/FVC normal or increased
  • Reduced lung compliance
  • Arterial hypoxemia (primarily due to V/Q inequality)
  • Diffusion impairment
  • All of the above

Question 20

Question
Which of the following statements is/are true:
Answer
  • Pulmonary edema causes decreased lung compliance
  • Aging causes increased lung compliance
  • Asthma does not alter lung compliance
  • A & B only
  • All of the above

Question 21

Question
Which of the following is the greatest factor influencing lung recoil?
Answer
  • the collagen and elastin fibers in the tissue of the lung
  • the surface tension forces in the fluid lining the alveoli

Question 22

Question
Surfactant [blank_start]increases[blank_end] lung compliance and [blank_start]decreases[blank_end] lung recoil by [blank_start]lowering[blank_end] surface tension in the alveoli.
Answer
  • increases
  • decreases
  • has no affect on
  • decreases
  • increases
  • lowering
  • increasing

Question 23

Question
During what week span does surfactant appear in a developing fetus?
Answer
  • Week 24-35
  • Week 35-40
  • Week 18-24
  • Week 12-18
  • Week 4-8

Question 24

Question
Increased lung recoil (high rebound) and decreased compliance (difficult to stretch) requires [blank_start]more negative[blank_end] intrapleural pressure to inflate the lung.
Answer
  • more negative
  • less negative

Question 25

Question
When abnormally high negative interpleural pressure is required to maintain lung volumes (e.g. atelectasis) this may result in:
Answer
  • capillary filtration and pulmonary edema
  • capillary diffusion and increased perfusion
  • capillary rupture and hemoptysis
  • capillary regurgitation and pneumothorax

Question 26

Question
Which of the following may cause surfactant to become non-functional in maturity? (select all that apply)
Answer
  • Sepsis
  • Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome
  • Gastric aspiration
  • Lecithin-Sphingomyelin syndrome
  • Pulmonary edema

Question 27

Question
In regards to the fluid dynamics of respiration, which of the following could result in increased interstitial fluid and thus pulmonary edema? (check all that apply)
Answer
  • Decreased plasma osmotic pressure
  • Increased capillary hydrostatic pressure
  • Increased capillary permeability
  • Increased alveolar surface tension
  • Increased lymphatic drainage

Question 28

Question
Which of the following conditions may cause pulmonary edema?
Answer
  • loss of surfactant
  • left heart failure
  • starvation
  • diuretic drugs
  • inflammation reactions

Question 29

Question
Which of the following might be used to treat pulmonary edema?
Answer
  • Diuretic meds
  • Vasodilation meds
  • Calcium channel blockers
  • Both A & B
  • All of the above

Question 30

Question
The partial pressures of ventilatory gases in the alveoli are identical to that of the systemic arterial blood.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 31

Question
The ratio of ventilation (air flow) to perfusion (blood flow) need to match for maximum gas exchange.
Answer
  • True
  • False
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