Research Methods Quiz- Psychology (AS)

Grace Fawcitt
Quiz by , created over 2 years ago

AQA Psychology Research Methods quiz for AS. Covers all topics in the AQA Psychology textbook, including researchers, evaluations and theories. Made for my own benefit, so not all questions will help you out, but feel free to use.

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Grace Fawcitt
Created by Grace Fawcitt over 2 years ago
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Question 1

Question
Aim: a general [blank_start]statement[blank_end] of what the researcher intends to investigate- the [blank_start]purpose[blank_end] of the study. Hypothesis: a [blank_start]testable[blank_end] statement that states the relationship between the [blank_start]variables[blank_end] being investigated.
Answer
  • statement
  • conclusion
  • idea
  • purpose
  • outcome
  • conclusion
  • testable
  • untestable
  • variables
  • beliefs
  • data

Question 2

Question
A directional hypothesis: states what kind of difference there will be between the [blank_start]variables[blank_end]. They often include words like 'more' or 'less' e.g. People who drink caffeine will be more intelligent than people who don't. A non-directional hypothesis: simply states that there will be a difference, but not the [blank_start]type[blank_end] e.g. People who drink more caffeine will differ in terms of intelligence when compared to people who don't drink caffeine.
Answer
  • variables
  • outcomes
  • researchers
  • conclusions
  • type
  • outcome
  • conclusion

Question 3

Question
Researchers usually use directional hypotheses when previous research suggests no particular outcome. When previous research suggests a particular outcome, they'd use a non-directional hypothesis.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 4

Question
In an experiment, the researcher manipulates the [blank_start]independent[blank_end] variable and records the effect of this change on the [blank_start]dependent[blank_end] variable.
Answer
  • independent
  • dependent

Question 5

Question
Levels of the IV: the [blank_start]control[blank_end] condition (e.g. No caffeine/ drink of water), the [blank_start]experimental[blank_end] condition (caffeine). An effective directional hypothesis should distinguish between the IV and DV e.g. The group who drink caffeine will be more intelligent than the group who drink water. The only issue with this hypothesis is that it doesn't include the [blank_start]operationalisation[blank_end] of the variables (explained in other question)
Answer
  • control
  • experimental
  • operationalisation

Question 6

Question
Operationalisation of variables includes ensuring the variables being investigated are [blank_start]measurable[blank_end] and therefore unfuzzy, e.g. Participants who drink 200ml of coffee in one hour can answer 5 more questions in a 20 minute period than participants who drink 200ml of water in one hour.
Answer
  • measurable
  • immeasurable
  • subjective
  • confounding

Question 7

Question
Extraneous variables: any variable other than the [blank_start]IV[blank_end] which may have an effect on the [blank_start]DV[blank_end]. They [blank_start]do not vary[blank_end] systematically with the IV. Confounding variables: any variable other than the [blank_start]IV[blank_end] which may have affected the [blank_start]DV[blank_end] so we are unsure of the true source of the changes to the DV. They [blank_start]vary[blank_end] systematically with the IV.
Answer
  • IV
  • DV
  • CV
  • DV
  • IV
  • CV
  • do not vary
  • vary
  • IV
  • EV
  • DV
  • DV
  • IV
  • EV
  • vary
  • do not vary

Question 8

Question
Demand characteristics: in which the participant guesses the [blank_start]aim[blank_end] of a study, and then acts accordingly e.g. As they believe they are [blank_start]expected[blank_end] to behave, or try to over-perform to [blank_start]please[blank_end] the researcher.
Answer
  • aim
  • outcome
  • conclusion
  • expected
  • not expected
  • please
  • irritate
  • obey

Question 9

Question
Investigator effects: how the [blank_start]researcher[blank_end]'s behaviour influences a participant's behaviour e.g. Smiling at certain participants but not others. It can also refer to the [blank_start]actions[blank_end] of the researcher related to the study design e.g. Selection of participants, the materials, the instructions etc. [blank_start]Leading[blank_end] questions are also an example of investigator effects
Answer
  • researcher
  • participant
  • general public
  • expected
  • actions
  • beliefs
  • opinions
  • Leading
  • Open
  • Closed

Question 10

Question
Which technique is used to minimise the effects of extraneous/confounding variables on an outcome?
Answer
  • Operationalisation
  • Randomisation
  • Demand characteristics
  • Leading questions

Question 11

Question
[blank_start]Randomisation[blank_end] refers to the use of [blank_start]chance[blank_end] wherever possible during an experiment to reduce investigator effects. For example, if participants must recall word from a list, the list should be randomly generated- the position is not chosen by the experimenter.
Answer
  • Randomisation
  • Operationalisation
  • chance
  • objectivity
  • rigid structure
  • researcher involvement
  • participant involvement

Question 12

Question
Standardisation: all participants must have [blank_start]the same[blank_end] environment, information and experience. This includes standardised [blank_start]instructions[blank_end].
Answer
  • the same
  • a different
  • a similar
  • instructions
  • beliefs
  • ideas
  • outcomes

Question 13

Question
Experimental Design: 1. [blank_start]Independent[blank_end] groups: [blank_start]two[blank_end] separate groups, one group does control condition, other does experimental condition. Results are compared. 2. [blank_start]Repeated[blank_end] measures: [blank_start]one group[blank_end], does both the control condition and the experimental condition. Results are compared. 3. Matched pairs: choosing one group, then choosing another to [blank_start]match[blank_end] participants in the first group (e.g. Based on IQ, culture etc.) One group does control condition, other does experimental condition. Results are compared.
Answer
  • Independent
  • Repeated
  • Matched
  • two
  • three
  • Repeated
  • Independent
  • Matched
  • one group
  • two groups
  • match
  • contrast
  • compete against

Question 14

Question
Name two advantages of the independent group design
Answer
  • Order effects are not a problem
  • Participants less likely to guess aims
  • Cost- effective
  • Lack of participant variables

Question 15

Question
Name two disadvantages of the independent groups design
Answer
  • Quite expensive
  • Participant variables
  • Order effects
  • Easy to guess aims

Question 16

Question
Name two advantages of the repeated measures design
Answer
  • Fewer participant variables
  • Cheaper
  • Fewer order effects
  • No demand characteristics

Question 17

Question
Name two disadvantages of the repeated measures design
Answer
  • Order effects
  • Demand characteristics
  • Expensive
  • Participant variables

Question 18

Question
Name two advantages of the matched pairs design
Answer
  • No order effects
  • Fewer demand characteristics
  • Cheaper and faster
  • No participant variables

Question 19

Question
Name two disadvantages of the matched pairs design
Answer
  • Some participant variables
  • More expensive and time consuming
  • Order effects
  • Demand characteristics

Question 20

Question
[blank_start]Random[blank_end] allocation: allocating participants randomly to the conditions. This should evenly distribute participant characteristics (e.g. Names in a hat). [blank_start]Counter[blank_end]-balancing: half participants take part in condition A then B, the other half do B then A. This helps control [blank_start]order[blank_end] effect, although it doesn't remove them entirely.
Answer
  • Random
  • Counter
  • order

Question 21

Question
Lab experiment: takes place in a [blank_start]controlled[blank_end] environment in which the [blank_start]researcher[blank_end] manipulates the [blank_start]IV[blank_end], while maintaining [blank_start]strict control [blank_end]of the extraneous variables.
Answer
  • controlled
  • natural
  • abnormal
  • researcher
  • environment
  • IV
  • DV
  • CV
  • PV
  • EV
  • strict control
  • moderate control
  • no control

Question 22

Question
Field experiment: takes place in a [blank_start]natural[blank_end] setting in which the [blank_start]researcher[blank_end] manipulates the IV.
Answer
  • natural
  • lab
  • outdoor
  • field
  • controlled
  • researcher
  • environment
  • general public

Question 23

Question
Natural experiment: takes place in a [blank_start]natural[blank_end] setting in which the change in the IV [blank_start]is not[blank_end] brought about by the [blank_start]researcher[blank_end], but would occurred anyway.
Answer
  • natural
  • lab
  • controlled
  • well-populated
  • is not
  • is
  • researcher
  • environment
  • general public

Question 24

Question
Quasi experiment: there is [blank_start]no manipulation [blank_end]of the IV, it exists anyway (e.g. Age or gender)
Answer
  • no manipulation
  • manipulation
  • minimal manipulation

Question 25

Question
Name three advantages of lab experiments
Answer
  • Control over variables
  • Easily replicable
  • High internal validity
  • Easy to generalise
  • High external validity
  • No demand characteristics

Question 26

Question
Name four disadvantages of lab experiments
Answer
  • Low external validity
  • Low internal validity
  • Too artificial
  • Difficult to generalise
  • Demand characteristics
  • Participant variables more likely
  • Lack of control
  • Difficult to replicate

Question 27

Question
Name two advantages of field experiments
Answer
  • More natural environment
  • More controlled environment
  • High external validity
  • High internal validity

Question 28

Question
Name two disadvantages of field experiments
Answer
  • Ethical issues- no consent
  • Lack of control
  • Too artificial
  • Low external validity

Question 29

Question
Name two advantages of natural experiments
Answer
  • High external validity
  • High internal validity
  • Provide opportunities that are normally impossible
  • Easy to generalise

Question 30

Question
Name two disadvantages of natural experiments
Answer
  • Difficult to generalise
  • Can't randomly allocate
  • Low external validity
  • Too artificial

Question 31

Question
Name an advantage of quasi experiments
Answer
  • Carried out in controlled conditions
  • Carried out in natural environment
  • Easy to identify cause and effect
  • Few confounding variables

Question 32

Question
Name a disadvantage of quasi experiments
Answer
  • Cannot randomly allocate
  • Lack of control
  • Difficult to replicate

Question 33

Question
The target population: a [blank_start]subset[blank_end] of general population e.g. Male students for Idaho. The sample: a small group that is ideally representative of the [blank_start]target[blank_end] population.
Answer
  • subset
  • type
  • sample
  • target
  • general

Question 34

Question
Random sampling: [blank_start]all[blank_end] members of target population [blank_start]have equal[blank_end] chance of being selected. Each person is added to a list and then given a number, and the sample is generated via a [blank_start]computer[blank_end] (e.g. Computer-based randomiser)
Answer
  • all
  • most
  • some
  • half of the
  • have equal
  • haven't got an equal
  • computer
  • researcher

Question 35

Question
Systematic sampling: every [blank_start]nth[blank_end] person is selected e.g. Every 5th pupil on a school register. A sampling frame (alphabetised list of target population) is produced and every nth person is selected.
Answer
  • nth
  • single
  • other

Question 36

Question
Stratified sampling: the sample reflects the proportions of people in particular sub-groups ([blank_start]strata[blank_end]). The researcher calculates what percentage each strata is of the [blank_start]target population[blank_end] (e.g. 40% female) and then participants are [blank_start]randomly[blank_end] sampled accordingly. With reference to the example above, if you were to have 20 participants, 8 would need to be female in order to be representative.
Answer
  • strata
  • omega
  • gamma
  • stratifiers
  • general population
  • world
  • randomly
  • systematically
  • target population

Question 37

Question
Opportunity sampling: selecting anyone who is [blank_start]willing[blank_end] and able to participate.
Answer
  • willing
  • unwilling
  • randomly sampled

Question 38

Question
Volunteer sampling: involves the researcher advertising the study, and participants selecting [blank_start]themselves[blank_end] to take part (volunteer)z
Answer
  • themselves
  • others
  • the researcher

Question 39

Question
Name and advantage of random sampling
Answer
  • Free from researcher bias
  • Quick and easy to do
  • Very representative

Question 40

Question
Name three disadvantages of random sampling
Answer
  • Difficult and time consuming
  • Sample can still be unrepresentative
  • Participants can refuse to take part
  • Researcher bias can affect sample

Question 41

Question
Name two advantages of systematic sampling
Answer
  • Avoids researcher bias
  • Quite representative
  • Entirely representative

Question 42

Question
Name two advantages of stratified sampling
Answer
  • Avoids researcher bias
  • Representative sample
  • Strata identifies all ways people are different

Question 43

Question
Name a disadvantage of stratified sampling
Answer
  • Complete representation impossible
  • Not representative
  • Researcher bias

Question 44

Question
Name an advantage of opportunity sampling
Answer
  • Convenient
  • Representative
  • Avoids researcher bias

Question 45

Question
Name two disadvantages of opportunity sampling
Answer
  • Researcher bias
  • Unrepresentative
  • Inconvenient
  • Expensive+ time consuming

Question 46

Question
Name an advantage of volunteer sampling
Answer
  • Easy+ quick
  • Representative
  • Easy to generalise

Question 47

Question
Name a disadvantage of volunteer sampling
Answer
  • Volunteer bias
  • Researcher bias
  • Time consuming

Question 48

Question
Informed consent: making participants aware of the [blank_start]aims[blank_end], procedures, their [blank_start]rights[blank_end] and the use of the data. It can make a study seem [blank_start]unnatural[blank_end] if the participant knows the aims.
Answer
  • aims
  • beliefs
  • researcher's name
  • rights
  • lack of rights
  • unnatural
  • more natural

Question 49

Question
Deception: [blank_start]deliberately[blank_end] misleading or withholding information. This means participants can't [blank_start]give informed consent[blank_end]. It can be justified if it means participants' behaviour is more [blank_start]natural[blank_end] and they are not suffering.
Answer
  • deliberately
  • accidentally
  • give informed consent
  • behave naturally
  • interact adequately
  • natural
  • artificial

Question 50

Question
Protection from [blank_start]harm[blank_end]: participants should not suffer any form of harm during the experiment. The harm can be psychological e.g. Feeling embarrassed, guilty or inadequate.
Answer
  • harm
  • help
  • researcher
  • public

Question 51

Question
Privacy: [blank_start]participants[blank_end] control information about themselves. Confidentiality: this involves the right to have our [blank_start]personal[blank_end] data protected.
Answer
  • participants
  • researchers
  • the general public
  • personal
  • medical
  • educational
  • public

Question 52

Question
To deal with informed consent, researchers should send a consent [blank_start]letter[blank_end], and only go ahead when this is signed.
Answer
  • letter
  • demand
  • order

Question 53

Question
Dealing with protection from harm and deception: [blank_start]debriefing[blank_end] can be used to ensure the participants know the aims and [blank_start]details[blank_end] of the study. It should also reassure participants that they have the right to [blank_start]withhold[blank_end] information, and that they can be provided counselling if necessary.
Answer
  • debriefing
  • standardisation
  • operationalisation
  • sampling
  • details
  • problems
  • withhold
  • enclose all

Question 54

Question
Dealing with confidentiality: this often done by referring to participants by [blank_start]numbers[blank_end] or [blank_start]initials[blank_end]. They are also reminded during debriefing that their data will be protected throughout.
Answer
  • numbers
  • first names
  • last names
  • initials
  • code names

Question 55

Question
A pilot study is a small-scale version of the actual investigation.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 56

Question
Pilot studies often use [blank_start]fewer[blank_end] participants, and are utilised to test if the [blank_start]investigation[blank_end] runs smoothly. This also involves identifying any [blank_start]issues[blank_end] so they can be modified in order to save time and money in the future.
Answer
  • fewer
  • more
  • male
  • female
  • investigation
  • aim
  • hypothesis
  • issues
  • positives
  • participants

Question 57

Question
Single blind trial: only [blank_start]researcher[blank_end] knows aim, controls [blank_start]demand characteristics[blank_end]. Double blind trial: both researcher and participant [blank_start]don't know [blank_end]aim, preventing demand characteristics and [blank_start]investigator effects[blank_end].
Answer
  • researcher
  • participant
  • demand characteristics
  • participant variables
  • order effects
  • researcher bias
  • don't know
  • know
  • investigator effects
  • participant variables
  • order effects

Question 58

Question
Control group: group of participants whose purpose is for [blank_start]comparison[blank_end]. The experiment group tests the effects of changing the IV, and this is compared to results from the control group.
Answer
  • comparison
  • proof
  • results
  • highlighting change in DV

Question 59

Question
Naturalistic observation: watching and recording behaviour in the setting in which it would [blank_start]normally[blank_end] be performed. Controlled observation: watching and recording behaviour within a [blank_start]structured[blank_end] environment e.g. In which some variables are managed
Answer
  • normally
  • not normally
  • never
  • structured
  • natural

Question 60

Question
Covert observation: participants' behaviour is recorded and watched [blank_start]without[blank_end] their knowledge or consent. Overt observation: participants' behaviour is recorded and watched [blank_start]with[blank_end] their knowledge and consent
Answer
  • without
  • with
  • with
  • without

Question 61

Question
Participant observation: researcher [blank_start]becomes[blank_end] member of group whose behaviour he/she is recording. Non-participant observation: researcher [blank_start]doesn't become [blank_end]a member of group whose behaviour he/she is recording.
Answer
  • becomes
  • doesn't become
  • doesn't become
  • becomes

Question 62

Question
Naturalistic observations have high [blank_start]external[blank_end] validity as findings [blank_start]can[blank_end] be generalised to everyday life. Lack of control decreases [blank_start]replicability[blank_end] and extraneous variables could also be present. Controlled observations [blank_start]can't[blank_end] be easily generalised, but extraneous variables are [blank_start]less[blank_end] common so replication is [blank_start]easier[blank_end]
Answer
  • external
  • internal
  • can
  • can't
  • replicability
  • generalisability
  • can't
  • can
  • less
  • more
  • easier
  • harder