Groups we are apart of tend too have an influence on usex. choice of outfit to wear daily, hair styleOnes Family has a influence in adult lifeex. choice of political partyPhillip Zimbardo- when confronted with con, forming in the group, people jump to the "but no me" (not me syndrome) but actually do.
- 9 guards, 9 prisoners; Guards had no instructions on what they their job was- Prisoners were awaken by guards to do "counts"; this is where the guards exercise their authority - pushsups were used as a form of punishment -prisoners began cursing at guards- one prisoner began suffering from acute emotional disturbance, disorganized thinking, uncontrollably crying, and rage.-
Caption: : Asch's experiment shows that when asked which line was the same length as the reference line, 1/3 of the students went with the wrong answer because that was what the majority said was corrent
Even with the smallest social pressure, people will conform with the majority.
The Milgram Obedience Studies
Milgram studied how an authoritative figure can stimulate conformity.In the first experiment, 65 percent of the teachers went up to 450 volts to shock the "students" when the researcher told them to continue.
The Iraqi Prisoners at Abu Ghraib
In 2004, US soldiers tortured Iraqi prisoners due to orders they felt were given both directly and indirectly.
e.g. major government policies are a result of group thinkDeindividualization:
Formal organizations are formed to accomplish particular tasks and are characterized by their relatively large size.e.g. The Federal Government--> each organization designed to accomplish certain tasks.- develop cultures and routine practices-people can form to expect patterns of behavior-can be used as a tool for innovationNormative organizations (voluntary organization) obtain personal satisfaction, but no monetary reward.-Gender, class, race, and ethnicity play a role
- large in size, complex and impersonal. The best way to administer a complex society.e.g, Microsoft, DisneyMax Weber's ideal type of Bureaucracy is characterized by:1.High degree of division of labor and specialization 4. Impersonal relationships2. Hierarchy of authority 5. Career Ladder3. Rules and regulations 6. Efficiency
Bureaucracy's Other face
The informal culture whereby the administrators and secretaries bend the rules where it appears that they show more authority than their salaries suggest.
Issues with Bureaucracy
Organizational ritualism--> rigid adherence to rules can result in a slavish following of them Alienation--> the stresses on rules and procedure can end up psychologically separating a person from the organization and goals.
The Mcdonalization of Society
George Ritzer developed the term Mcdonalization in order to refer to how the fast-food business has been adopted all over the world.