Necessary Vocabulary for the course of Linguistics
Flashcards by melissa_kappler, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by melissa_kappler over 9 years ago

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Four Types of Phrases 1) adjective - 2) verb - 3) noun - 4) prepositional - Phrases
Pronoun Replaces the Noun "SOME have left."
Determiner Stands in front of a NOUN to determine it. "SOME people have left."
Prepositional Phrase (PP) Examples: After the match in the garden in a bed
Noun Phrase Examples: the boy the woman Peter Jack
Verb Phrase Examples: has left was eating is sleeping
Adverbial Phrase (AdvP) Examples: quickly Adverbs in general
Adjective Phrase (AdjP) Examples: crazy stupid weird Adjective in General
Post-modifier A modifier placed after the head of the phrase. Example: "I was born in a farm house THAT stood on a pretty heath in Sussex"
Morphemes smallest meaning bearing units of a language
Inflexional Morphemes add grammatical meaning to the STEM -> creating new WORD-FORMS
derivational Morphemes create new lexemes when being added.
Morphemes are... realized by morphs
Allomorphs different kinds of morphs realizing the same morpheme in the same context
Compounding putting two word together e.g. couchpotato
Derivation putting two words together e.g. king-dom
Conversion verb out of noun e.g. (to) butter
Blending blend to words into one e.g. smoke + fog = smog
Backformation cut of something to get a new word e.g. babysitter -> babysit
Acronyms shortening e.g. NATO , RADAR
Alphabetism shortening e.g. CD, DVD, CIA
Clipping take part of word away e.g. refrigerator -> fridge
signifiant a sound sequence
signifié "the mental concept in the world"
linguistic sign sprachliches Zeichen
linguistic corpus a way to study a language by using natural or daily occurring texts to determine principles how language is used
Symbol Not understandable - if not known, arbitrary, culture specific
Index Understandable , no general meaning
Icon not culture specific, directly understandable, resembles what it means
Language Can be defined as a system of signs
Synonymy words with the same or similar meaning e.g. damp / moist
Relational opposite word belonging together in the same context but are direct opposites e.g. guest / host
Hyponymy A word whose meaning is included in the meaning of another more general word e.g. move / run
Antonomy a word that is the opposite meaning of another e.g fail / pass
directional opposite a word meaning the opposite from another in case of directions e.g leave / return
Meronymy The relationship of being a constituent part or member of something e.g. door / house
Hyponym A word whose meaning is included in the meaning of another more general word e.g. TREE hyponyms: Marple , Pine , Birch
Meronym A term used to denote a thing that it is a part of. e.g. TREE meronyms: branch, leaf, stem
Complementary DIRECTLY Opposite things - nothing in between e.g. dead / alive awake / asleep NOT happy / sad -> neutral in between
Homophone One pronunciation of a word can have two meanings e.g. knight / night
Homonyme One word can have two meanings e.g. bark - sound a dog makes - part of a tree's stem
Extension extension of a given word e.g. WOMAN Extensions: Mary , Sally, Mrs Smith etc.
Intension intension of a given word e.g. WOMAN intension: human, adult, female
Phonetis - Concrete sounds in general - Pronunciation
Phonology - Abstract Sound System of a language - Specific
Production of CONSONANTS partial of total obstruction of airstream
Production of VOWELS no obstruction of the airstream
Production of Souns has THREE DIMENSIONS 1) Voicing 2) Place of Articulation 3) Manner of Articulation
(1) VIOCING any Vibration of the Vocal chords
(2) Place of Articulation Where is the sound produced?
(3) Manner of Articulation Plosive Fricative Affricative Nasal Approximants ( Vowels )
Phoneme smallest meaning distinguishing Unit of a given language
Allophone When two sounds never occur in the same position and therefore never distinguish meaning
Lexeme meaning bearing abstract Unit e.g. cook
word-form concrete realization of a lexeme e.g. cooks
free morphemes & bound morphemes 1) CAN stand alone 2) CAN NOT stand alone
lexical morpheme all lexical word classes -> open-class-items e.g. nouns, verbs, adjectives
inflectional morphemes indicate aspects of grammatical function of a word -> reates new FORMS of a word -> paradigm
functional morphemes all grammatical/functional word classes -> closed-class-items e.g. conjunctions, prepositions
derivational morpheme - creates new words - derives a new lexeme from a given one e.g. polite -> unpolite
STEM: part of the word to which inflectional affixes are added
BASE: part of word when you take away a derivational affix and still have not reached the root
ROOT: part of the word to which inflexional and derivational affixes are added -> THE VERY CORE
zero-morpheme e.g. sheep - sheep (plural)
Neologism completely new invented word
Borrowing borrowed from other languages e.g. kindergarten
SYNTAX the study of structure of sentences
SEMANTICS Study of meaning in language
Semasiology meaning or function of a word
Onomasiology expression or word associated with a meaning
descriptive meaning describing Objects, Actions and State of World
Social Meaning information about the language user, socially relevant
Expressive Meaning language users' attitude, feelings etc.
20th Century - linguistics Synchrony - diachrony & language system - language use
19th Century - linguistics historical-comparative liguistics
Three Main Types of literary science Methods Structuralism, Formalism, Fuctionalism
Three Main Structural levels of linguistics phonetics, morphology, syntax
Structuralists describing constructions of English grammar
Formalists formulating rules to syntactic operations generation the constructions
Functionalists in which contexts would the individual structural options be used
Obstruent plosive, fricative, affricative
Sonorants nasal, lateral, roll, semi-vowels, approximants, liquids , glides
Great Vowel Shift (1450-1650) a major change in the pronunciation of the English language - all vowels were affected - pronunciation changed, spelling NOT - the English vowels shifted up the chart
William Caxton (1467) Introduced the printing press to England = very important for the development and standardization of the English language (fixing of spelling)
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