Some types of ionising radiation can be used to diagnose or treat some medical conditions.
What does ionising radiation mean?
Radioactive emissions arise from u__________ atomic nuclei because of an imbalance between the numbers of protons and n_____________. These are called r__________________ isotopes. To try and become s_______, radioactive isotopes s_______ up in a process called ________________ decay and emit radioactive radiation.
An alpha particle is the same as the ____________ of a ____________ atom
i.e. two protons and two _________.
A beta particle is a high velocity _________ which comes out of the ______________ of an atom.
Radiation can be absorbed by substances in its path. Different types of radiation have different penetrating power.
Alpha particles are the __________ penetrating and can be stopped by a thin sheet of __________ or the skin.
___________ radiation is the most penetrating and is not even completely stopped by several meters of ______ or concrete and will pass straight through the human ______.
Examples of ionising radiation are:
A alpha particles, beta particles and radio waves
B radio waves, X-rays and gamma rays
C alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays
X-rays are able to pass through the human ______. As they pass through, the energy from
X-rays is _______________ at different rates by different parts of the body.
A _____________ on the other side of the body picks up the X-rays after they’ve passed through and turns
them into an __________.
Dense parts of the BODY that X-rays find it more
______________ to pass through, such as _____, show up
as _________ areas on the image.
___________ parts that X-rays can pass through more
_________, such as your heart and _______, show up as _________ areas.
CAT scans are formed by processing together a large number of __-____ images taken around an axis.
The many ____ dimensional (flat) images are then combined to form a three dimensional _______ of the body.
Are X-rays and CAT scans safe?
Ultrasound is the name given to sound waves with _____ frequencies.
These frequencies cannot be _______ by humans.
Ultrasound has many applications in medicine.
• safe monitoring of a foetus during ____________
• diagnosis of ___________
Unlike __-_____, ultrasound waves are not ionising. This means they are _______ to use when performing
a foetal scan.
The _________ camera is an imaging technique which can be used in diagnosing _________.
It involves using a gamma detector (__________) together with a _____________ isotope which is attached to special drugs, called __________, which carry the radioisotope to the ________ being investigated.
The injected __________ carries the radioisotope to the part of your _____ under investigation. The
radioisotope gives off ___________ rays, which are detected by a gamma camera.
The information is passed to a computer which produces an ________.
A gamma camera scan will show how well an _________ or part of your body is working.
Radiotherapy is a treatment involving the use of __________ radiation. It is commonly used to treat ____________.
The ionising ___________ used during radiotherapy damages the _____ of cancer cells.
As a result the cancer cells _____ or reproduce more slowly.
____________ radiotherapy involves using a __________ which focuses __-_____ at the ___________.
_____________ radiotherapy involves using a ________________ isotope such as iodine-131 that is taken as a
drink or ____________ into a vein.
Drugs are substances that change chemical _____________ in the body.
Medical drugs relieve ___________ and illness, and are extensively ___________ before being used.
A placebo is a:
A new drug that is released for clinical trials
B tested drug whose effect on patients is well known
C fake drug
Clinical testing can made more reliable by stopping the observer making biased observations.
This is done by using:
A blind trials
B double-blind trials
C animal testing
Aspirin and paracetamol:
A can be used to destroy bacterial infections
B do not destroy bacteria but relieve the symptoms of a disease
C destroy bacteria and relieve the symptoms of a disease