Flashcards by laurenfaulkner7, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by laurenfaulkner7 about 8 years ago


Psychology (Cognative) Flashcards on Cognitive, created by laurenfaulkner7 on 05/21/2013.

Resource summary

Question Answer
Memory encoding, storage, retrieval, explained in different ways by different theories
Forgetting not remembering, which has more than one explanation
Storage how information is retained in the brain ready for retrieval
Retrieval getting stored information out of the memory
Repeated Measures same participants are used in both conditions (different tests)
Independent Measures different participant used in each condition
Matched Pairs different, but similar participants are used in each condition. Effort is made to match participants on important characteristics which may effect performance
Experimental Hypothesis is a statement of what is expected (is the alternative hypothesis)
Null Hypothesis any difference or relationship expected is due to chance - there is no relationship or difference as predicted. Tested using statistics
Directional Hypothesis (One-tailed) direction is predicted
Non-directional (Two-tailed) no direction predicted
Independent Variable is changed or manipulated by the researcher. This is to see the effect on the dependent variable
Dependent Variable is measured by the researcher. It changes as a result of the independent variable
Participant Variables age, gender, experience and mood of the participants
Situational Variables temperature, noise, interruptions, light
Extraneous Variables variables which might affect the results e.g. situational, participant
Experimenter Effects come from cues or signals from an experimenter that can affect the participant's response
Double-blind technique the participants are not aware which group they are in or what the study is about. Neither the person running the study or the participant know precisely what is expected
Single-blind technique the participants are not aware of what is expected but the person carrying out the study is
Ecological Validity whether it has real life applications
Capacity the size of the store
Duration how long the information remains in the store
mode of representation the form in which the information is stored
Encoding how memories are encoded, which means how they are registered as memories
Storage how memories are stored, which means how they remain as memories after they have been registered
Retrieval how we retrieve memories when the output is needed
Confabulation means making up bits to fill in a memory so that it makes sense
Rationalisation means making something make sense
Memory Trace information is laid down and retained in a store as a result of the original perception of an event
Retrieval Cue information present in the individuals cognitive environment at the time of retrieval that matches the environment at the time of recall
Context Dependent the situation or context is different from that at encoding
State Dependent the person's state or mood is different from that at encoding
Latency Period time between signal and recall
Measures of central tendency mode, median and mean
Mean Average - adding up and dividing by amount
Mode usual score
Mean middle score
Range measure of dispersion
Nominal Data which are data in categories
Ordinal Data which are data in ranks (Mode and Median)
Interval/ratio data mathematical scores and all three measures of central tendency are suitable
Information Processing what the cognative approach is about, including input, processing and output, and how these work
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