Gen Lec. Note 10/23 (Chapter 11)

Isabella N
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DNA replication, continuation of lecture 10/23 for 2nd half of genetics

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Isabella N
Created by Isabella N about 2 years ago
DNA replication
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Question Answer
Semiconservative is the method of DNA replication, how does it work? Newly-formed 2x strands of DNA is 1 strand parental + 1 strand daughter
This method of DNA replication is intermixing of parental and daughter strands (hybrid). Dispersive model
In order ____ complementary strands, the ______ _____ helix is used as a ______ synthesize/make; original 2x; template
Newly-formed DNA strands are called? Daughter strands
The original (2) 2x helix strands are called? Parental strands
The conservation model was (1) of proposed methods of DNA replication, what is it? Both parental strands stay together throughout the replication process.
This model was proposed in the 50's + proved to be correct, what is it? Semiconservative model
What experiment proved that DNA replication is semiconservative? Meselson-Stahl, growing E. coli in heavy Nit. isotope --> then growing it in lighter Nit. - following density of the resulting DNA
DNA polymerase needs what (3) components to make new daughter strands? DNA template/parental strand, RNA primer, all DNA nucleotides (A/T/G/C)
As the chain of DNA elongates, what direction is the replication going? 5' to 3'
What type of nucleotides are added in DNA replication? Nucleotide triphosphate
What happens as a nucleotide is added? (2) of phosphates are removed + used as energy to make a covalent bond w/ neighboring DNA nucleotide (across the street)
DNA polymerase I + ____ needs a RNA ____ to start added _____. Mg++; template/primer; nucleotides
Prokar. have (_) orgins of replication + replication is in what direction? (1); bidirectionally
Name steps of prokar. chromos. replication @ origin of replication --> create replication bubble --> new DNA made here until replication forks meet
The enzy. starting the production of new DNA DNA polymerase
DNA polymerase needs a DNA ____ to add ____ @ 3' -___ of an ______ ________. template/parental strand; nucleotides; OH; existing polynucleotide (RNA/DNA)
Polymerase _ in prokar. removes RNA primers + these subsequent gaps. 1
Polymerase _ in prokar.s works from _' to _' + makes edits after ______. 3; 5, 3; replication
How does the DNA polymerase work in prokar.s? The "hand" grabs DNA --> splits it into (2)via enzy. in "palm"
____ make the initial split in DNA. DNaA
These helicases helps smooth out coils @ end of replication forks, breaks H-bond between DNA strands + further open strands. DNaB, DNaC
Single-stranded binding proteins do what? Keep strands open + from binding together.
DNaB + DNaC are both made of what? Proteins
Why does DNA gyrase goes before helicases? This is the 1st step in smoothing supercoils, making helicases job easier.
Once DNA strands are separated, what is made next? RNA primer
Who makes the RNA primers? DNA primase.
RNA primers are how long? 10-12 nucleotides long.
This daughter strand is made from 5' to 3' direction. Leading strand
This strand is opposite to the leading strand in DNA synthesis. Lagging strand
What is the lagging strand made of? Okazaki fragments that begin w/ a RNA primer
After RNA primers are removed, what are they filled w/ + by whom? DNA; DNA ligase
DNA polymerase 3 is also knowns as a...? Dimer.
What is 5' to 3' exonuclease activity? DNA polymerase taking out primers + allows for corrections to be made.