Eukaryotic organelles(Animal Cells - revised)

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A level Biology (Cells) Flashcards on Eukaryotic organelles(Animal Cells - revised), created by Irene Binil on 11/23/2017.
Irene Binil
Flashcards by Irene Binil, updated more than 1 year ago
Irene Binil
Created by Irene Binil over 6 years ago
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Question Answer
Nucleus Contains DNA to store the information for protein synthesis. Largest Organelle in the cell. Has a double membrane called the nuclear envelope. Holes called nuclear pores for transport in and out of the cells.
Mitochondrion Site of ATP production by aerobic respiration. Has double membranes, the inner membrane is folded to increase the surface area for the attachment ATP synthase.(cristae, fluid - matrix) Cells that need a lot of energy has a lot of mitochondria; eg .muscle cells and epithelial cells.
Cell surface membrane Controls the passage of molecules in and out of the cell Made up of Phospholipids, specific transport protiens and carbohydrates arranged into what is defined as a fluid mosaic model. All cell membranes have the same basic structure. The differention in composition is related to the structure.
Lysosome Digest damaged and worn out organelles. Single membrane and has no internal structure.. Contains a large number of hydrolytic enzymes which are lysozymes in an acid solution, which must be kept seperate from the rest of the cell contents to prevent them from digesting organelles.
Ribosomes Site of protein synthesis from amino acids. Made up of rRNA and two protien sub units. Eukaryotic cell contains 80s ribosomes. The two subunits of a ribosome are made of a combination of long strands of rRNA, dotted with protien chains.
Golgi Apparatus Sorts modifies and packages molecules such as proteins and triglycerides into vesicles. Golgi vesicles may be used to form lysosomes. Composed of flattened sacs made up of membranes. The sacs are fluid filled and pinch off smaller vesicles at the ends. One Golgi body in each cell.Cells with more E.g. protein secreting gland cells, antibody producing plasma cells.
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Made from membranes with ribosomes embedded. Synthesises and transports proteins throughout the cell. Folded into flattened sacs called cisternae.
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Recombines glycerol and fatty acids to make triglycerides. Packages triglycerides into vesicles and transports thems into golgi apparatus.
Microvilli Finger like projections of the cell membrane, which greatly increase the surface area of the cell membrane, this speeds up absorbtions of digested food. These are found on the epethelial cells of the small intestine.
Centrioles Functions in mitosis to form a network of spindle fibres across the cell onto which the chromosomes attach. These fibres pull the chromatids apart during mitosis.
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