Brain & Behavior


chapter 13 - Physiology of Behavior Cei Carlson (Revel)
Julie Brodeur
Flashcards by Julie Brodeur, updated more than 1 year ago
Julie Brodeur
Created by Julie Brodeur over 6 years ago

Resource summary

Question Answer
types of memory sensory short term long term
types of learning stimulus-response motor perceptual relational
stimulus-response learning ability to perform a specific behavior when a stimulus is present; can be automatic/reflexive or complicated series of movements classical conditioning OR operant conditioning
classical conditioning US, UR, CS, CR association between two stimuli; stimuli-stimuli a species specific reflex in response to a stimulus Mechanism is HEBBIAN learning - pairing of strong synapse with weak synapse (tone (weak) with air puff (strong) and eye blink when strong is gone, eye will still blink on weak)
operant conditioning instrumental conditioning; reinforcing or punishing outcome follows a specific behavior in a specific situation; permits organism to change its behavior according to consequences
motor learning changes in motor systems following stimulus; occurs with sensory stimulus from environment; ex. riding a bike, driving a standard car, skating
perceptual learning recognizing stimuli that have been perceived before; ability to identify and categorize objects & situations; can be perceived by sensory systems - sight, sound, smell, touch, taste
relational learning relationships among individual stimuli - connections between different areas of association cortex - ex. cat meowing in the dark - we can hear it, picture it, know what it would feel like - all without seeing it
spatial learning a form of relational learning; relationships among objects and their locations with respect to each other
sensory memory brief time hold of info coming in through sensory systems fractions of a second to a few seconds
short term memory short term or working memory; info that is salient passed from sensory to here; seconds to minutes 7+- items held needs rehearsal to move on from here
long term memory relatively permanent lasts hours, days, weeks, years, decades needs to be consolidated from short term to reach long term
non declarative memory implicit memory automatic things we do - we don't know that we know them how to drive stick - we learned, but it becomes automatic; control behaviors
declarative memory explicit memory memory of events and facts
episodic memory declarative AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL event based can relate the info on such and such a day, I went to the movies, I saw Wonder Woman, I went with my friend, we sat in the 4th row back, etc.,
semantic memory facts you know capital of Canada is Ottawa how to change a flat
memory retaining your learning
learning acquire info to process & change nervous system
hypothesized memory processes inputs to sensory buffer encoding gets info to short term memory encoding = ATTENTION here it can be consolidated into long term memory OR retained in working memory for use and later retrieval consolidation = REHEARSAL info goes back from long term to working
interruptions to hypothesized memory processing can have problems at encoding and consolidation and between retrieval and performance; breakdown at consolidation is usually due to lack of rehearsal or bothering to remember
multiple trace hypothesis shows memory over time sensory buffer high strength short time short term memory moderate strength longer time intermediate term memory not quite as strong, little bit longer time long term memory lowest strength longest time
multiple memory systems hypothesis memories can be categorized each category has a brain region associated declarative - hippocampus procedural - basal ganglia emotional - amygdala 'working with' - prefrontal cortex
declarative explicit memory you can tell about right now HIPPOCAMPUS
procedural motor related how to do something show not tell BASAL GANGLIA
emotional memories are strongest tied to emotions AMYGDALA
'working with' memory memory you need right now as doing a task PREFRONTAL CORTEX
memory divided into SHORT TERM and LONG TERM
short term sensory memory short term working memory
long term declarative non declarative each of these divided further
nondeclarative - lower level brain regions procedural - skills, cognitive & motor - BASAL GANGLIA/CEREBELLUM perceptual - perceptual priming - PERCEPTUAL ASSOCIATION CORTEX classical conditioning - stimuli-stimuli response - SKELETAL MUSCLE nonassociative learning - habituation/sensitization - REFLEX PATHWAYS
declarative - brain region is higher level medial temporal, mid diencephalon, neocortex & prefrontal cortex episodic - events you can tell about - like a show; specific & personal - AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL semantic - facts you know; world knowledge, object knowledge, language knowledge
sensory memory large capacity - short time frame rapid decay
short term working memory seconds to minutes 7 +/- 2 items, severely limited capacity prefrontal cortex involved available to conscious awareness
intermediate term hours to days transfer to long term by acting on info - rehearsal ex - remembering where you parked
short term memory & FORGETTING interference - memory for other material interferes with retention; better recall when info is spaced over a time - not cramming decay - fades without rehearsal - reviewing notes helps with retention
interference theory primacy & recency primacy - tend to remember the first items in a list; enough resources to transfer first items into long term memory recency - tend to remember the last items in a list; items are still in short term memory so able to recall tend to "forget" the middle items
factors affecting primacy & recency distractor at the end of a list interferes with recency but not primacy faster presentation of items interferes with primacy not recency changing (increasing) the length of delay between presentation & recall interferes with both
consolidation hippocampus & amygdala memories affected by perception of the event subject to change with each activiation memory is suggestible, malleable, flexible & subjective
priming an alteration of a response to a stimulus as a result of prior exposure can last for hours, not dependent on level of processing - see the list of words or study list of words if test and presentation (priming) are different modalities there is a reduction but not elimination involves sensory cortexes
conditioned fear amygdala involved little albert experiement conditioned to fear white & fuzzy items without occasional pairing, conditioned fear response extinguishes
habitutation ignoring all incoming info if it's not significant i.e., ignore the feel of clothes on your body
short term memory brain regions prefrontal cortex sensory association areas
declarative long term memory brain areas hippocampus
procedural long term memory brain areas basal ganglia motor association areas cerebellum
emotional long term memory amygdala
long term potentiation long term increase in excitability of a neuron to a PARTICULAR synaptic input by repeated HIGH FREQUENCY activity of that input EPSPs (excitatory post synaptic potentials) sum as successive EPSPs occur before ones have faded
synaptic plasticity long term potentiation (LTP) strengthens exisiting synapses and creates new ones important for stroke recovery after LTP number of receptors is increased
in classical conditioning an organism shows a species typical behavior in response to a previously unimportant stimulus
you are listening to a song on the radio when the phone rings. Your mom tells you your favorite uncle has died after being hit by a car.3 months later you hear the same song & feel sad. What is the UR? feeling sad when your mom calls with bad news
the ___ states that a weak synapse will be strengthened if its activation occurs at the same time that the postsynaptic neuron fires Hebb rule
the ability to recall a series of events is referred to as episodic learning
intense electrical stimulation of axons within the hippocampal formation results in LTP of postsynaptic neurons
childhood amnesia most people can't remember much before 5 years old
optimal memory at 25 can hold 200 bits of info per second
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