Germany 1918-39

Flashcards by maisieruhlbarrett, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by maisieruhlbarrett almost 7 years ago


Flashcards on Germany 1918-39, created by maisieruhlbarrett on 08/27/2014.

Resource summary

Question Answer
The Kapp Putsch (1920) A right-wing revolt led by Wolfgang Kapp Aimed to get the Kaiser back into power 5,000 rebels took control of Berlin Government promoted strike by workers which paralysed city and putsch failed
The Dawes Plan (1924) An agreement between Stresemann and Dawes, a US bank It reduced Germany's reparation payments and arranged for US banks to invest in German industry Government finances improved and German industry recovered
The Young Plan (1929) Reduced reparations from £6.6 billion to £2 billion Gave Germany 59 more years to pay reparations off Made the Weimar Republic popular with some Germans , but not all as reparations were still £50 million per year
The Locarno Pact (1925) Germany accepted the borders agreed at the Treaty of Versailles Allied troops began to leave the Rhineland France promised not to invade as it had done in the Ruhr Improved popularity of the Weimar Republic
The Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928) 61 nations promised not to go to war to resolve disputes Germany was part of this pact Showed German people that the Weimar Republic was now a respected part of the international community
The Spartacists A communist group Led a huge uprising in Berlin in 1919 Thought the Weimar Republic was run by middle-class Wanted Wrokers' councils to run the country Government ended revolt violently, using the Freikorps
The Enabling Act (March 1933) Passed by 444 votes to 94 The SA and SS filled the Kroll Opera House where the voting was held The Act said Hitler could make laws without the consent of the Reichstag He got this extra power for 4 years
The Concordat (1933) An agreement between Hitler and the Pope Hitler would allow Catholics to worship and the Catholic Church would not interfere in Politics It failed as HItler wanted more control over the Catholic Church. He made its schools teach his curriculums; he banned Catholic youth groups and arrested priest The Pope criticised the Nazis in 1937
The Pastors' Emergency League (PEL) Protestant group who campaigned against the Nazis The PEL leader, Pastor Martin Niemoller, was arrested in 1937 and sent to a concentration camp
Joseph Goebbels Ran the Ministry of People's Enlightenment and Propaganda Controlled newspapers,magazines, films,plays and radio broadcasts Censored information the Nazis didn't like and put in propaganda to give out Nazi messages
The Gestapo (Hitler's secret police) Part of the Nazi police state Led by Heydrich It had no uniform so it could easily spy on everyone By 1939, the Gestapo had arrested 150,000 people for political opposition
The Reichstag Fire (February 1933) Was blamed on a young Dutch communist, Marinus van der Lubbe Hitler used the Reichstag fire to make HIndenburg declare a state of emergency This meant Hitler, as chancellor, could pass laws by decree
The Decree for the Protection of the People and the State (Before the 1933 elections) Passed by Hitler It suspended civil rights, which meant he could imprison his elections rivals It also banned communist newspapers
The SS Set up in 1925 Was Hitlers 'protection squad' From 1929, Himmler ran it and expanded it to 50,000 men The SS controlled all the security forces in the Nazi police state The Death's Head Units of the SS ran concentration camps
Ernst Rohm The leader of the SA He disagreed with some of Hitler's policies By 1934,the SA numbered 3 million. This made Rohm a threat
The Night of the Long Knives (June 30th to July 2nd, 1934) HItler's purge fo the SA in 1934 About 400 people were shot, including the SA leader, Ernst Rohm Removed threats to Hitler
The Munich Putsch (8-9th November, 1923) Hitler wanted to exploit discontent about hyperinflationand the French occupation of the Ruhr He wanted to act before Stresemann improved the economy and cracked down on right-wing groups Hitler and 600 SA stormed a meeting of the Bavarian state leaders and forced them to accept Nazi takeover The next day, when the leaders were no longer being physically threatened, they called the local police and army The Nazis tried to take over the city but state troops defeated them. Goering was wounded, 16 Nazis were killed, and Hitler was captured The Munich Putsch failed
Reasons the Munich Putsch failed Hitler did not have the support of local Bavarian leaders The Nazis were too weak: they only had 2,000 rifles and they were outnumbered by Bavarian troops
Results of the Munich Putsch Hitler was given 5 years in prison HIs trial gave the Nazis publicity and he used his time in prison to write Mein Kampf He was released after only 9 months
The Sturmabteilung (SA) Set up in 1921 and led by Ernst Rohm The Nazi private army Wore brown uniforms and were called 'brownshirts' Helped the party grow by scaring rivals, protecting Nazi leaders and disrupting rival meetings
French Occupation of the Ruhr (1923) When Germany could not pay reperations the French invaded the Ruhr, Germanys industrial area They took raw materials, industrial machines and manufactured goods The Ruhr contained many factories and around 80% of Germany's coal, iron and steel production Germany's economic problems were made worse
Hyperinflation German money became worthless so the government printed more money which then led to money becoming even more worthless Many workers became unemployed The pensions and savings of middle-classes became worthless Made the government even more unpopular
The Weimar Republic At the end of WW1 the Kaiser abdicated A new government was set up, led by Chancellor Ebert This government created the Weimar Republic It allowed everyone over 20 to vote by secret ballot for members of the Reichstag The chancellor led the government. He chose ministers and proposed laws The president was head of state. He chose the chancellor and, under Article 48, could pass laws by decree in crisis
Reasons the Weimar government was weak The constitution shared out power but this made chancellors weak They had to rely on coalitions of small parties to get a majority in the Reichstag This led to members of the Reichstag disagreeing with each other
Anti-Semitism Anti-Semitism is prejudice against, hatred of, or discrimination against Jews as a national, ethnic, religious or racial group
The Rhineland (Germany's border with France, Belgium and the Netherlands) Demilitarised as ordered by the Treaty of Versailles Became a 'buffer' zone to protect those countries German troops could not go into it , even though it was part of Germany
Gustav Stresemann Was Chancellor in 1923 Solved economic problems He negotiated a French withdrawal from the Ruhr and the Dawes Plan He dealt with inflation by replacing the mark with a new currency, the rentenmark
The Treaty of Versailles A peace treaty drawn up after WW1 Made by Lloyd George, Georges Clemenceau, and Woodrow Wilson The new Weimar Government had to accept the treaty and it was signed on 28th June 1919 Germans called it a diktat as they were not part of the negotiations
The November Criminals Germans believed that the politicians who signed the Treaty of Versailles had betrayed them They said that, by accepting it, the new government had given Germany a 'stab in the back' (dolchstoss) The politicians were then known as the 'November Criminals'
The Wall Street Crash (1929) Set off a worldwide Great Depression Sales of German exports fell, causing bankruptcies Unemployment rose from 1 million to 5 million by 1932 Caused political unrest and voters turned away from the Weimar Republic again
The 1932 Presidential Elections Hindenburg was re-elected, with 19 million votes Hitler came second with 13 million votes Hitler was now a national political figure
The Law for the Encouragement of Marriage (1933) Lent couples who married 1000 marks (a month's wages) if the wife left work For each child, they were let off a quarter of the loan Boosted marriage, large families and women staying at home
The German Women's Enterprise Supported the Nazi policy of large families Gave classes and radio broadcasts on good motherhood Gave the Mother's Cross to women with children: bronze for 4-5; silver for 6-7; gold for 8 or more
The Lebensborn programme Aimed to produce 'racially-pure' Germans It found 'racially-pure' women for SS men to get pregnant In just one Lebensborn home, from 1938-41, 540 single women gave birth to babies fathered by SS men
The Four Year Plan (1936) Hitler's plan to change the economy to make Germany ready for war in four years Arms spending went from 3.5 billion to 26 billion marks Army grew from 100,000 to 900,000 between 1933 and 1939
The German Labour Front (DAF) the state-run Nazi replacement for trade unions Set working hours and wages Under the DAF, working hours went up by an average of 6 hours a week
The Reich Labour Service (RAD) Gave work to the unemployed All young men had to do 6 months in the RAD from 1935 Did work vital to the state, like farm work and public buildings and, by 1939, had built 7,000 miles of autobahn
The SdA (Beauty of Labour) Aimed to please workers and keep their support Controlled working conditions like meals and safety standards
The KdF (Strength through Joy) Ran sports centres and social activities, such as theatre trips and holidays, for workers As a result, KdF became the world's largest tour operator in the 1930s
The Nuremburg Laws (1935) Said Jews were no longer German citizens, so could not vote or have passports From 1938, Jews had to register their possessions and carry identity cards Jewish professionsals, like doctors, could not have Aryan clients and German citizens could not marry Jews
Nazi Views on Race In Mein Kampf, Hitler set out the NAzi hierarchy of race 'Pure' Western Europeans were 'Aryans' (Hitler's invented race) Then came races such as eastern European Slavs Next were 'sub-humans'(for example, black people and the disabled) Gypsies and Jews were Lebensunwertes (unworthy of life)
Kristallnacht (the Night of Broken Glass) Over the night of 9th November 1938 the Nazis took revenge for the shooting of a Nazi official in Paris by a young Jew Nazi official figures say 814 shops, 171 homes and 191 synagogues were destroyed and about 100 Jews were killed
Events after Kristallnacht 20,000 Jews were sent to concentration camps In 1939, all Jews had to move into ghettos: walled-off areas of cities that kept them apart from other people Housing and food supplies to the ghettos were bad
Nazi Youth Movements were planned to make Germany strong Pimpfen (Little Fellows, 6-14) and Jungvolk (Hitler Youth, 14- 18) were for boys. They trained them for the army The League of German Maidens was for girls. It taught motherhood
Nazi Schools All children went to school until they were 14 All schools had the same curriculum: PE took up a sixth of school time Lessons taught Nazi view; for example, race studies taught Aryan superiority Girls studied cooking and needlework
Nazi Views about Women Nazis thought women should focus on the traditional kinder, kuche, kirche (children, kitchen, church). They frowned on women working, or wearing make-up or trousers Some women felt devalued by Nazi policies
Women and Work There were about 100,000 female teachers in Germany in 1933 The Nazis wanted women at home, and forced many women out of professions such as law and teaching This created jobs for men and reduced unemployment
Edelweiss Pirates Was an anti-Nazi youth group It had 2,000 members by 1939
Propaganda Was used to persuade people to support the Nazis and their ideas Goebbels made radio broadcasts, films and plays support Nazi ideas, then made radios, and film and theatre tickets cheap He also used massive spectacular rallies to boost the image of Hitler and the Nazi Party
The Great Depression (Began 1929) Changed German politics From 1929, the economy worsened, unemployment and unrest grew Chancellor Bruning's government could not cope. He tried rasising taxes and banning protest. Both failed. This boosted support for extreme parties: by September 1930, the Nazis had 107 Reichstag seats
Hitler joined the German Workers' Party (DAP) (1919) Hitler joined the party when it only had 40 members It was a right-wing group, angry about Versailles and economic problems It was anti-communist, anti-socialist, anti-Jewish, and regarded democracy as weak
The Nazi Party In 1920 the DAP changed its name to the National Socialist German Worker's Party (NSDAP in German, Nazi for short) Hitler became the party leader in 1921. His rousing speeches attracted more members.
The 25-Point Programme Hitler and Anton Drexler (the party leader at the time) drew up a 25-Point Programme It included scrapping the Versailles treaty, expanding Germany, and removing citizenship from Jews By 1920, membership was 3,000
The March 1933 Elections The election campaign was violent. 70 people died in clashes between the SA and Nazi opponents The Nazis won 288 seats, the communists only 81 Hitler banned the communists from taking their seats by using his emergency powers. This meant Hitler, with the aid of the Nationalists, had two thirds of the votes in the Reichstag he needed to change the constitution
President HIndenburgs Death (August 1934) Hitler declared himself Fuhrer- with the powers of both chancellor and president In a plebiscite ( the vote of all members of an electorate) to confirm this, 90% agreed. This change, combined with earlier ones, made Hitler a dictator
May 1932 CHancellor Bruning was sacked His government could not deal with the problems caused by the Great Depression Von Papen, the new chancellor, needed Nazi votes in the Reichstag so made Hitler one of his cabinet
July 1932 The Nazis became the biggest party in the Reichstag (230 seats) Hitler withdrew his support and von Papen could not continue as chancellor Hindenburg didn't want Hitler and appointed von Schleicher as chancellor
January 1933 Von Schleicher could not rule without Nazi support Hindenburg had little choice but to appoint Hitler, the leader of the biggest party in the Reichstag, as the new chancellor of Germany
The Freikorps Anti-communist private armies formed after WW1 by ex-officers
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