Flashcards by mdbrown, updated more than 1 year ago
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Chapter 1 vocabulary words

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physical needs such as sleep and hunger Physiological
private; unobservable cognitive
the scientific study of behavior and mental processes Psychology
1. description 2. explanation 3. prediction 4. influence 4 goals of psychology
an educated guess about some phenomenon hypothesis
research basic (pure) science
using psychological principles to solve more immediate problems applied science
scientific method
In 1879 he opened the first psychology laboratory in Germany; "father of psychology" Wilhelm Wundt
the concept that the mind and body are separate and distinct dualism
our mind is a blank slate that the environment (aka experience) writes upon; John Locke tabula rasa
being interested in the basic elements of human experience structuralist
self-observation to collect information about the mind introspection
taught the first class in psychology at Harvard University in 1875 William James
study how animals and people adapt to their environments functionalist
declared that the "most fit" humans were those with high intelligence Sir Francis Galton
the debate about the extent to which our behavior is inborn (innate) or learned through experience nature vs. nurture
perception is more than the sum of its parts Gestalt Psychology
a physician who practiced in Vienna until 1938; more interested in the unconscious mind Sigmund Freud
a method for indirectly studying unconscious processes free association
a female pioneer in psychology (1863-1930) Mary Whiton Calkins
Russion physiologist (1849-1936); studied conditioned reflexes provoked by stimuli Ivan Pavlov
psychologists who stress investigating observable behavior behaviorist
(1878-1958) psychology should concern itself only with the observable facts of behavior; all behavior, even apparently instinctive behavior, is the result of conditioning and occurs because the appropriate stimulus is present in the environment John B. Watson
describe human nature as evolving and self-directed; does not view humans as being controlled by the events in the environment or by unconscious forces. instead, the environment and other forces simply serve as a background to our own internal growth humanists
a specialty of medicine psychiatry
help people deal with personal problems; they normally work in offices, mental hospitals, and prisons clinical psychologists
work in their own private office, in schools, or industrial firms, advising and assisting people with their problems counseling psychologists
employed by business firms and government agencies; study and develop methods to boost production, improve working conditions, place applicants in jobs for which they are best suited, train people, and reduce accidents Industrial/Organizational Psychologists (I/O Psychologists)
African-American psychologist who conducted the White/Black Doll Experiment for the Brown vs. Board of Education court case Kenneth B. Clark
science of skull bumps Phrenology
to be objective; listening and interpreting the associations psychoanalysis
psychoanalytic theory, a desire for sexual involvement with the parent of the opposite sex and a concomitant sense of rivalry with the parent of the same sex; a crucial stage in the normal developmental process; Sigmund Freud Oedipus Complex
His theory: operant conditioning; “the behavior is followed by a consequence, and the nature of the consequence modifies the organisms tendency to repeat the behavior in the future.” B.F. Skinner
a slip of the tongue where a person says what they're actually thinking about at the time Freudian Slip
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