General epi flashes

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Flashcards by Sno, updated more than 1 year ago
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Created by Sno about 6 years ago
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TOPIC 1. INFECTIOUS DISEASES A. DEFINITION OF INFECTIOUS DISEASE A DISEASE C BY ENTRANCE INTO THE BODY BY AN ORGANISM (BAC/VIRUS/FUNGI/PROTOZOA) WHICH GROWS AND MULTIPLIES THERE
TOPIC 1. INFECTIOUS DISEASES B. SOURCES OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES HUMANS OR ANIMALS: DIRECT OR INDIRECT VIA: 1. EXCRETION/SECRETION (blood, faeces, urine, saliva, genital discharge, milk) 2. PRODUCTS (wool, hair. skin, meat, milk) 3. WATER, FEED, SOIL, ENVIRONMENT, AIR, ARTHROPODS, IATROGENIC, NOSOCOMIAL (HOSPITAL)
TOPIC 1. INFECTIOUS DISEASES C. ROUTES OF TRANSMISSION VERTICAL GERMINATIVE INTRA UTERINE GALACTOGENIC HORIZONTAL.
TOPIC 1. INFECTIOUS DISEASES TYPES OF ZOONOSIS ORTHO: BIRD TO ANIMAL CYCLO: AT LEAST 2 VERT HOSTS (IM) META: VERT + INVERTEBRATE HOST
TOPIC 1. INFECTIOUS DISEASES ENTRANCE OF INF INTO BODY NATURAL ORIFICES: NOSE, PO, GENITAL, UDDER, CONJUNCTIVA, SKIN. OTHER: WOUND. IMP: OPTIMAL ENTRANCE
TOPIC 1. INFECTIOUS DISEASES FORMS OF INFECTION REINFECTION EXACERBATION/AGGREVATION SUPERINFECTION (esp post antibiotics), SECONDARY (during pre-existing or secondary to) MIXED
TOPIC 1. INFECTIOUS DISEASES FACTORS AFFECTIONG OUTCOMES OF INFECTION: AGENT (AGENT - HOST - ENVIRONMENT) AGENT: relationship w/ host, width of host range (euryxen= narrow, stenoxen=wide)pathogenicity, virulence, obligate/facultative, virulence (virulence factors + changes in virulence), amount of agent MLD/ LD50(median lethal dose dose required to kill half the members of a tested population after a specified test duration), route of infection, invasiveness (intra/extracellular).
TOPIC 1. INFECTIOUS DISEASES FACTORS AFFECTIONG OUTCOMES OF INFECTION: HOST (AGENT - HOST - ENVIRONMENT) age species related resistance non-specific resistance specific resistance environment nutrition management production (feeding, laying) physiological factors: skin type, mucous membranes, excretions (HCl, fatty acids, bile etc), MPS (macrophage-phagocytic system), complement factors (properidin opsonin), IL, IF, TNF specific resistance, passive immunity, (passive, induced) active immunity(natural, induced, specific), humoral resistance (IgA, IgG etc), cellular resistance (ic, bacteria, viruses), effect of immune suppresion (toxicosis, medicines, mycotoxins, parturition), fetal immune reaction (hierarchy, age). Immune reaction in newborns (Calf: ig 4-32 days. piglet: local immune reactions immediately, disappear, no immune memory). cellular imm reaction (weaker): 0-2 weeks.
TOPIC 1. INFECTIOUS DISEASES FACTORS AFFECTIONG OUTCOMES OF INFECTION: ENVIRONMENT (AGENT - HOST - ENVIRONMENT) survival of agent in environment environmental effects on animal predisposition to facultative pathogens nutrition managment technology (weaning, grouping, treatment, castration, sheering, transport).
TOPIC 2. PATHOGENESIS, COURSE, EPIDEMIOLOGY OF INF DISEASES. FACTORS INFLUENCING SPREAD OF INF DISEASE. PATHOGENESIS (AND INFECTION TYPES) INF TYPES: local, localized (in diff organs), generalized. PATHOGENESIS: INCUBATION (inf --> colonization --> replication) GENERALIZATION (spreading: blood, lymph, perineural) teratogenic: fetus results in: resorption, embryonic death, abortion). DECREASED RESISTANCE TOLERATED INFECTIONS MANIFESTATION (CS`s, lesions (dep on virulence factors).
WHAT ARE VIRULENCE FACTORS? (VF) molecules expressed and secreted by pathogens, enabling them to achieve: colonization (including adhesion to cell), immunoevasion, immunosuppression, inhibition of imm response, entry and exit into cell (if IC), obtain nutrition from host. VF`s are often resp for causing disease due to them often converting non pg bacteria to dangerous pathogens. in bacteria, VF = often encoded on mobile genetic elements ex bacteriophages, and are easily spread horizontally.
TOPIC 2. PATHOGENESIS, COURSE, EPIDEMIOLOGY OF INF DISEASES. FACTORS INFLUENCING SPREAD OF INF DISEASE. COURSE (+ TIME) OF INF DISEASES VIRUSES: PRIMARY REPLICATION: at entry site and regional lnn. localization by macrophages and further replic in inf macrophages, lymphocytes and blood. (VIREMIA). REPL IN CELLS LEADS TO: lymph cells: imm suppr. blood cells: dmg bl vsls. SECONDARY REPLICATION: in tissues DMG TISSUE LEADS TO: CS`s, reactive inflammation, allergic reaction. TIME: incubation time, course of infection time: PER ACUTE, ACUTE, SUBACUTE, CHRONIC.
TOPIC 2. PATHOGENESIS, COURSE, EPIDEMIOLOGY OF INF DISEASES. FACTORS INFLUENCING SPREAD OF INF DISEASE. OUTCOME OF INF DISEASES RECOVERY(full or partial) CARRIER DEATH can be: abortive, inapparent, persistent (virus), latent (virus), tolerated (virus). NB! inf without CS (carrier) is very important in epi.
TOPIC 2. PATHOGENESIS, COURSE, EPIDEMIOLOGY OF INF DISEASES. FACTORS INFLUENCING SPREAD OF INF DISEASE. EPIDEMIOLOGY ESTABLISH THE FOLLOWING: I. characteristics of the disease: infectious/contagious/soil inf. II. statistical evaluation: morbidity, mortality, surveillance (passive and active), lethality, incidence, prevalence. III: analysis methods: data collection, diagnostic workup, monitoring, surveillance, screening, hypotheses control, statistical methods, blind examinations. IV: extent of diseases: endemic (enzootic), epidemic (epizootic), pandemic (panzootic)
ENDEMIC in a population when that infection is maintained in the population without the need for external inputs. For example, chickenpox is endemic (steady state) in the UK, but malaria is not.
EPIDEMIC occurs when new cases of a certain disease, in a given human population, and during a given period, substantially exceed what is expected based on recent experience. Epidemiologists often consider the term outbreak to be synonymous to epidemic, but the general public typically perceives outbreaks to be more local and less serious than epidemics
PANDEMIC an epidemic of infectious disease that has spread through human populations across a large region; for instance multiple continents, or even worldwide.
NOTIFICATION INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION REGARDING INF DISEASE: OIE, FAO, WHO
3. DX AND TREATMENT DX COMPLEX: epid data. cs, pm lesions, all reactions, lab (diagnostic institutions), evaluation. allergic tests: tuberculin, mallein. lab diagnosis: sampling, covering letter, histology, microscopic smears, electron microscopes ex isolation (medium - cell culture - egg - laboratory animal). serological testing: classical: agglutination, precipitation, page, cft. cellular tests: lymphocyte stimulation test, immune rosette formation, cytotoxic reaction, macrophage migration, g-interferon test. method for det nucleic acids (DN HYBRID, PCR). (USE MORE THAN ONE)
3. DIAGNOSTIC AND TREATMENT TREATMENT AETIOLOGICAL TREATMENT: BACTERIA: antibacteria, hyperimmune serum, symptomatic. individual/mass. remember: some diseases are illegal to treat! some chronic diseases as it is not reasonable. - prevention of complications (diseases c/by viruses).
4. PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF INFECTIONS DISEASES list the 3 main headings veterinary administration prophylaxis monitoring and surveillance chemoprophylaxis
4. PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF INFECTIONS DISEASES VET ADMIN gen rules: all in all out, disinfection, isolation (spp, age grps etc), closed keeping, limited traffic, wild an isol, rodents, birds. rendering of dead, waste disposal, rules on hatching, transport of day old chicks. exclusion of carriers. specific rules: applied to specific diseases
4. PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF INFECTIONS DISEASES IMMUNE PROPHYLAXIS types? passive, active and hyperimmune serum
4. PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF INFECTIONS DISEASES PASSIVE IMMUNITY maternal: epitheliochorical: colostrum syndemochorial: mainly colostrum endotheliochorial: diaplacentar + colostrum. imp aspects of colostrum: - Ig content decreases. - enteral absorption of Ig`s decreases. - enteral lymphocytes can be transferred. bisection time, effect of antigen on amnt of maternal antibodies. immunisation can be inhibited by colostrum (important reg vaccination).
COLOSTRUM % DAY 1: Protein: 18.8%, ig: 13.1% DAY 3: Protein: 7.5% Ig: 1.0% Commercial milk: Protein: 3.29% Ig: 0.09%
4. PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF INFECTIONS DISEASES TYPES OF ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION (VACCINES) live (attenuated) (virulence is reduced) vs inactive (killed) NEW GENERATION VACCINES: live: deletion vacc, vector vacc killed: subunit, inactivated deletion, VLP (virus like particles). Vaccines: ISCOM, synthetic, nucielic acid (DNA, ss+RNA), anti idiotype vaccines. DIVA: differ inf from vacc animal. DIVA vaccines carry at least one epitope less than the microorganisms circulating in the field. An accompanying diagnostic test that detects antibody against that epitope allows us to actually make that differentiation. (epitope= antigen determinant. "marker" the part of the antigen that is recognized by the imm syst)
4. PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF INFECTIONS DISEASES CHEMOPROPHYLAXIS antibacterials
4. PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF INFECTIONS DISEASES control and eradication SELECTION (test + remove) (+ vaccinate), generation shift, herd replacement, SPF method, embryo transfer. examples of eradication of human diseases: smallpox: 59-79. polymyelitis (some years), rubella, mumps (target 2010-2015). in animals: rinderpest: 2011
TOPIC 178. PRINCIPLES OF SAMPLING FOR LABORATORY EXAMINATIONS, TRANSPORT OF SAMPLES. PRINCIPLES OF SAMPLING: anamnesis or epidemiology: species, nr animals sick, age groups affected, is the disease infectious, seasonality etc. CS: fever, inappetence, depression, respiratory, GI, reprod fail, neurol signs. PM LESIONS: inflam, necrosis, hemorrhages. LAB: histology, det antigens (IF, capture ELISA), nucelic acid (PCR), culture (cells, embryonated eggs), SEROLOGY: HI, VN, ELISA, Immunoblot etc.
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